|evident||очевидный, явный, наглядный|
|refer||относить, ссылаться, обращаться|
|first-hand||из первых рук, непосредственный, прямой|
|sentiment||настроение, мнение, отношение|
|inextricable||неразрывный, сложный, запутанный, неразрешимый|
|large-scale||в крупном масштабе, крупномасштабный, массовый|
- answer to
- evident to
- referring to
- threat to
- owing to
- discontent with
- accompanied by
- in particular
- relate to
- on the contrary
How Much Europe Do Europeans Need?
Nov 2, 2016 Joschka Fischer
Joschka Fischer, Germany’s foreign minister and vice chancellor from 1998 to 2005, was a leader of the German Green Party for almost 20 years.
It is absurd to think that Europe’s historic nation-states are an answer to the globalized realities of the twenty-first century. The most important global decisions in this century will not be made democratically in Europe or individually in European capitals, but unilaterally in China or elsewhere.
BERLIN – In his final address to the European Parliament in 1995, then-French President François Mitterrand, whose failing health was evident to all, found the following indelible words to characterize Europe’s great scourge: “Le nationalisme, c’est la guerre!”
Nationalism and war were the defining experiences of Mitterrand’s political career, and he was referring not only to the dreadful past – the first half of the twentieth century, with its two World Wars, dictatorships, and the Holocaust. He viewed nationalism as the greatest future threat to European peace, democracy, and security. Although nationalist war was tearing apart Yugoslavia at the time, few of those who listened to Mitterrand in Strasbourg that day could have imagined that, 21 years later, nationalism would be experiencing a Europe-wide revival. But nationalist politicians whose declared goal is to destroy Europe’s unity and peaceful integration have now won in major democratic elections and referenda. The United Kingdom’s decision in June to leave the European Union marked a momentary climax for resurgent nationalism, but one can also see it on the march in Hungary, Poland, and France, where Marine Le Pen and her far-right National Front have been gaining strength in the run-up to next year’s presidential election. How could it have come to this, given Europe’s first-hand experience with nationalism’s destructive power in the twentieth century, when it caused millions of deaths and devastated the entire continent? For starters, the 2008 financial crisis and ensuing global recession are widely, and justifiably, seen as a massive failure on the part of the “establishment.” Anti-elite sentiment continues to erode intra-European solidarity and mutual trust, and the EU has become mired in a prolonged bout of slow growth and high unemployment. Across the West, a general feeling of decline has taken hold, owing to the shift in global wealth and power toward Asia. The United States has withdrawn geopolitically, while Russia has revived its great-power ambitions to challenge Western hegemony and values. Worldwide, there is growing discontent with globalization, digitization, and free trade, accompanied by a slow shift toward protectionism. Europeans, in particular, seem to have forgotten that protectionism and nationalism are inextricably linked – one cannot be had without the other.
Finally, there is a generalized fear of the unknown, as many countries confront issues relating to inflows of foreigners – whether refugees or migrants – and internal changes brought about by the increasing economic and political empowerment of women and minorities. These developments, which have coincided with the larger-scale transformations and ruptures in Europe that began in 1989, have triggered fears that establishment political parties and democratic institutions have failed to address. As always, when fear runs rampant in Europe, people seek salvation in nationalism, isolationism, ethnic homogeneity, and nostalgia – the “good old days,” when supposedly all was well in the world. Never mind that the bloody, chaotic past was anything but perfect. Nationalist leaders and their supporters today are living in a “post-empirical” reality, where the truth and experience have no purchase. All of this reflects a profound change in how Europeans see themselves. After two World Wars and during the Cold War, European integration was a no-brainer. But the shared understanding that unity delivers peace, prosperity, and democracy has been weakened over time by persistent crises, and it could now be lost completely unless it is reinforced by a forward-looking message. It is absurd to think that Europe’s historic nation-states are an answer to the globalized political, economic, and technological realities of the twenty-first century. If Europeans believe that, then they must be willing to pay the price for less integration, in the form of declining prospects and new dependencies. The most important global decisions in this century will not be made democratically in Europe, but unilaterally in China or elsewhere. Europe’s languages and cultures have a long history. But, lest we forget, its nation-states are a more recent development, especially outside of Western Europe. It would be a grave mistake to think that they represent Europe’s “end of history.” On the contrary, if the nation-state model wins out over integration, Europeans will pay a high price in this century. How European countries fare in the future is a question that can be answered only collectively, not on the basis of some individually defined national interest, as in the nineteenth century. Moreover, with Russia, Turkey, the Middle East, and Africa nearby, Europe lives in a difficult and challenging neighborhood. It does not enjoy the American luxury of having its security guaranteed by geography. Rather, its safety and prosperity must constantly be defended through politics, which is necessarily a joint effort. The central question for Europe’s future is how much power the EU needs in order to guarantee peace and security for its citizens. That, too, can be addressed only collectively. What is already clear is that Europeans will need not just more Europe, but also a different and more powerful Europe.
DISCUSSION AND APPLICATION QUESTIONS
- What are some of the global decisions that Fischer believes will not be made democratically in Europe?
- How does Fischer view nationalism as a threat to European peace and security?
- Can you provide examples of nationalist politicians who have won in major democratic elections and referenda in Europe?
MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS DEFINITION
|unilateral||an attitude toward something; regard; opinion|
|evident||to direct attention to, to apply to; indicate; mean|
|refer||incapable of being disentangled, undone, or solved; intricate, involved, or perplexing|
|first-hand||extensive or encompassing; of great scope|
|sentiment||undertaken or done by or on behalf of one side, party, or group only, not mutual|
|prolong||from the original source; direct or directly|
|inextricable||to lengthen out in time; extend the duration of; cause to continue longer|
|confront||plain or clear to the sight or understanding|
|large-scale||to face in hostility or defiance; oppose; to occur or arise as something to be dealt with|
|rampant||growing or spreading steadily and without stopping; widespread|
MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS SYNONYMS
|unilateral||apply, concern, indicate|
|evident||attitude, viewpoint, position|
|refer||tangled , inescapable, inseparable|
|sentiment||extensive, massive, considerable|
|prolong||lengthen, extend, protract|
|inextricable||face, withstand, oppose|
|confront||apparent, obvious, explicit|
|large-scale||uncontrolled, exuberant, excessive|
MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS COLLOCATIONS
|unilateral||knowledge/ experience/ information|
|evident||research/ study/ operation|
|refer||negative/ public/ for change|
|first-hand||declaration/ ban/ action|
|sentiment||link/ part/ from the problem|
|prolong||destruction/ corruption/ inflation|
|inextricable||across time/ from the testimony/ in data|
|confront||conflict, outbreaks, periods|
|large-scale||the opponent/ task/ the facts|
|rampant||to the alliance/ to climate change/ to programmes|
COMPLETE THE SENTENCES BY FILLING IN FOCUS WORDS
|1. Traditional bipartisan U.S. support for Israel has been frayed since Mr. Netanyahu took office a year ago, but Mr. Herzon said the two countries had a common cause in …………. Tehran.|
2. The impact of the climate law is already …………., with announcements of 47 new plants to make batteries, solar panels and wind turbines since it was passed, according to American Clean Power, a trade association.
3. Anti-refugee …………. has soared in Lebanon and Turkey, two other neighboring countries hosting Syrian refugees.
4. While being unemployed means people are looking for work, «economically inactive» …………. to those who are neither employed nor seeking work — whether through long-term illness, retirement or for other reasons.
5. Physicians, nurses and other front-line providers know …………. the health impacts of climate change.
6. Washington and Beijing seem to be hunkering down for a protracted conflict, one in which disagreements about trade seem …………. from broader questions involving geopolitical and technological dominance.
7. High energy prices, which have been another inflation driver, will likely face more upward pressure especially as China begins to reopen, and this could …………. central banks’ battle against inflation.
8. Together with their South Korean allies, US forces regularly conduct …………. military drills on the peninsula, frequently drawing angry rebukes from Pyongyang’s government.
9. Current policymakers must prepare themselves for an unstable world where compromise and collaboration, not …………. force, are the coins of the realm.
10. Analysts say that he had invested in improving education in the country and took steps to fight …………. corruption.
MATCH THE COLLOCATIONS FROM THE TEXT
|1. a slow shift||a) global recession|
|2. destructive||b) Western hegemony|
|3. inflows||c) nationalism|
|4. devastate||d) intra-European solidarity|
|5. political empowerment||e) a profound change|
|6. resurgent||f) of foreigners|
|7. reflect||g) the entire continent|
|8. erode||h) of women|
|9. challenge||i) power|
|10. ensuing||j) toward protectionism|
COMPOSE MEANINGFUL SENTENCES BASED ON FOCUS WORDS AND COLLOCATIONS FROM THE TEXT
E.g. _____________ refers to holding_____________
→ Affirmative action in admissions refers to holding applicants to different standards based on their race, not recruiting qualified candidates who attend unheralded public schools.
- _________ made a unilateral decision to _________
- _________ have become immediately evident that _________
- _________ referring to the date of _________
- _________ can offer a firsthand account of _________
- _________ a certain sentiment emerging among _________
- _________ helped prolong interest in _________
- _________ becoming an inextricable part of _________
- _________ directly confronting _________
- _________ large-scale events might come _________
- _________ rampant unemployment have compelled _________
- answer ___
- evident ___
- referring ___
- threat ___
- owing ___
- discontent ___
- accompanied ___
- ___ particular
- relate ___
- ___ the contrary
- So far, Japan ………… a trusted regional leader in technology, clean energy, and space exploration.
1). has become
4). had become
- Since the COVID-19 pandemic ………… Europe two and a half years ago, practically all of the EU’s decisions ………… to strengthen member states’ political integration.
1). hitted; sought
2). has hit; have sought
3). hit; have sought
4). had hit; sought
- The European powers (the UK, France and Germany), known collectively as E3, said the sanctions ………… remain in place until Tehran ………… «fully compliant» with the deal.
1). will; is
2). will; will be
3). would; was
4). would; will be
- Currently, the benefits of free and open trade …………, international institutions …………, new geopolitical powers ………… .
1). are questioned; are challenged; rise
2). are being questioned; are being challenged; are rising
3). have been questioned; have been challenged; have risen
4). have questioned; have challenged; have risen
- Without US backing, Israel ………… the momentous peace agreements that it now has with key Arab powers.
1). would have reached
2). would reach
3). will not reach
4). wouldn’t have reached
- Climate concerns and carbon border taxes ………… compound the problem, by spurring cycles of retaliation and intensifying strain on international trade.
- Abe Shinzō’s overarching goal ………… the most consequential bilateral relationship in the Indo-Pacific – India and Japan.
1). was to build
2). is build
3). has been built
4). is to have built
- ………… a succession of severe convulsions, European integration has recently undergone a historic acceleration.
- Today, the clearest manifestation of Abe’s Indo-Pacific strategy is the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue………… began as a humanitarian initiative when the US, Australia, India, and Japan formed a joint relief operation following the deadly tsunami that devastated Indonesia in 2004.
1). , that
4). , which
- ………… aiming to fill the U.S. vacuum in Iraq, France’s influence remains limited, particularly compared to China.