17

Regional Integration and Economic Blocs

VOCABULARY

1. TRANSLATE THE COLLOCATIONS BELOW

SET 1

English — RussianRussian — English
to advance the development
to pursue an objective
to attend to the matter
digital assets 
a key priority 
to undergo a transition
to foster values
to trigger additional sanctions 
tangible result
feasible option
продвигать повестку
проводить политику
удовлетворять потребности
государственные средства
считать приоритетным
подвергнуться реконструкции
создавать благоприятные условия
вызвать экономический кризис
ощутимое преимущество
выполнимое решение

SET 2

redefine the trajectory 
systems of constructs
overarching regulatory framework
consequential losses 
a protracted campaign 
emphasize the value 
manifestation of a company’s vision 
a debt relief plan 
merge their air forces
the public domain
изменить отношение
гипотетический конструкт
общая цель
важное решение
затяжной конфликт
подчеркивать факт
проявление кризиса
программа оказания помощи
объединить различные программы
космическая область

SET 3

to resort to drastic measures
by extension
vulnerable communities
substantial subsidies
benevolent associations
stymie growing protests
combat inflation
air defense capacity
promote understanding
amplify positive attitudes
прибегать к чрезвычайным мерам
продление срока платежа
подвержены манипуляциям
существенное повышение
благородные цели
препятствовать карьере
бороться с безработицей
на полную мощность
содействовать развитию
усиливать творческий потенциал

SET 4

deter protests
apparently unrelated to
an unprecedented extent
a little incentive to
implications for national security
exposed to A.I.
embrace a concept 
remarkable resilience
robust growth
shift sides to 
сдерживать военные действия
на первый взгляд
беспрецедентное решение
финансовое стимулирование
политические последствия
раскрывать информацию
внедрять технологии
повысить устойчивость
стабильная экономика
изменить положение

SET 5

mitigate risks
enhance the awareness of
inherent limitations
restrict movement
under close scrutiny
diversified energy supplies
emergence as a major nuclear power 
undermine authority
erode enemy forces
boost morale 
сокращать потери
повысить безопасность
врожденная предрасположенность
ограничить доступ
общественный контроль
диверсифицировать экономику
возникновение конфликтов
подорвать доверие
подрывать суверенитет
стимулировать экономику

2. REVISE THE FOCUS WORDS

SET 1

FLASHCARDS

SYNONYMS

advanceспособствовать; приближать, ускорять; продвигаться
pursueпреследовать, продолжать, заниматься; искать, добиваться
attend toобращать внимание; уделять внимание
assetимущество; средства; активы; ценное качество, вклад
priorityприоритет
undergoподвергаться, испытывать, переносить
fosterпоощрять, воспитывать, благоприятствовать
triggerинициировать, вызывать, дать начало
tangibleматериальный, ощутимый, осязаемый
feasibleвозможный, осуществимый, выполнимый, вероятный

SET 2

FLASHCARDS

SYNONYMS

redefineпересмотреть, переоценить, переопределить
merge сливаться, соединяться, поглощать
constructконструкция, концепция, образ
overarchingвсеохватывающий; всеобъемлющий
consequential логически вытекающий, важный
protractedзатянувшийся; длительный
emphasizeподчеркивать, акцентировать, выделять
manifestation проявление; обнаружение
relief помощь, пособие, облегчение, снижение
domainобласть, сфера, поле деятельности

SET 3

FLASHCARDS

SYNONYMS

resort toобращаться за помощью к, прибегать к
extensionрасширение, продолжение, удлинение, распространение
vulnerableуязвимый, ранимый
substantial существенный, значительный, важный
benevolentблаготворительный, доброжелательный
stymieзагнать в угол, ставить в тупик, безвыходное положение
combatвести бой, сражаться, бороться
capacityвместимость, мощность, способность, объем
promoteспособствовать, поощрять, продвигать, стимулировать
amplifyувеличивать, расширять; усиливать

SET 4

FLASHCARDS

SYNONYMS

deterудерживать, останавливать
apparentlyпо-видимому, очевидно, вероятно
unprecedentedбеспрецедентный
incentiveстимул, побуждение
implicationсмысл, значение, подтекст
exposeподвергать, показывать
embraceвключать, заключать в себе, охватывать
resilienceстойкость, жизнеспособность
robustкрепкий, сильный, устойчивый
shiftменять, изменять, перемещать

SET 5

FLASHCARDS

SYNONYMS

mitigateсмягчать, уменьшать
enhanceповышать, усиливать, увеличивать
inherentприсущий, неотъемлемый, свойственный, врожденный
restrictограничивать, держать в определённых пределах; сводить к 
scrutinyизучение, исследование, внимательный осмотр
diversifyразнообразить, варьировать
emergenceпоявление, возникновение
undermineподрывать, разрушать
erodeразрушать, разъедать, размывать
boostфорсировать, повышать, стимулировать, ускорять

3. REVISE THE PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITIONS

4. DO THE PROGRESS TEST

TEST

set 1

persistent 
reflected 
imperatives 
ultimate  
preoccupied 
enable 
mismatch 
endowment 
milestone
hastening 

1. Shareholders, policymakers and commercial ………… are pushing companies to put sustainability at the heart of their operations.
2. In a statement, Emergent President and Chief Executive Robert Kramer called the FDA’s decision a “historic ………… .”
3. Some voices in finance are calling for smaller and fewer rate increases, worried that the Fed is underestimating the …………  impact of its actions to date.
4.Volvo has put a heavy emphasis on sustainability, and it is …………  in its Lead the Charge rating, which is the third highest of all automakers the group surveyed.
5.The UK officials told Israeli border police that the official was a British government minister and that the visit had been coordinated with Islamic …………  that runs the site, the Waqf.
6. U.S. lawmakers and regulators fear that the Chinese government’s broad power over private companies in the country could …………  authorities in Beijing to access the data of American users.
7. At the press briefing, the team members emphasized that what turns climate hazards into humanitarian disasters is a …………  backdrop of other social, political and infrastructure factors.
8. Margaret Thatcher’s response, as Conservative prime minister during the 1980s, was to fight and win a war abroad while …………  a profound economic shift at home.
9. An analysis by the European economic think tank Bruegel revealed a severe …………  between the goal and the amount of fossil fuel infrastructure European countries are endeavoring to build and support.
10. Amid supply chain disruptions and shortages of goods and workers in some sectors, investors have been …………  by rising prices and expectations about central banks withdrawing stimulus to combat inflation.


set 2

dispensed 
commitment
encompasses
precipitated
epitomize 
underscore 
reconcile 
blueprint
contentious 
expedite 
1. The status of Jerusalem remains one of the thorniest issues in the decadeslong conflict and has …………  numerous rounds of violence.
2. China announced the construction of a National Data Bureau, reflecting China’s …………  to data and artificial intelligence as fundamental drivers of its future economy.
3. Shortages of chips and other critical products in the pandemic helped …………  how reliant the country is on foreign factories.
4. Tesla Autopilot, the driver-assistance suite that …………  Full Self-Driving Beta, is facing multiple investigations from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
5. Northern Ireland became one of the world’s most ambitious experiments in how to …………  a deeply divided society.
6. The Biden administration just announced the launch of Project Next Gen, which will devote more than $5 billion to help …………  ongoing scientific efforts.
7. For many Republicans, covid restrictions ………… their fear of government intrusion into private life.
8. Sweden, struggling with the backwash from a surge of immigration as well as tough economic prospects, has …………  with its center-left government.
9. In appointing another African American man to a senior Pentagon position, Mr. Biden may be setting up a …………  period on Capitol Hill.
10. Republicans, plagued by internal divisions, have so far been unable to coalesce the conference around a full budget ………… .
set 3

obtained 
albeit 
shrank
articulated 
inevitable
forbade  
stringent 
adherents 
encountered  
permit
1. Paraguay was one of the Latin American nations most devastated by the pandemic, and its economy …………  the previous year.
2. Officers at ports of entry …………  another 29,287 unauthorized migrants at the southern border and 13,155 at the northern border.
3. Germany’s domestic intelligence agency has put some Querdenker …………  under surveillance as the movement has become increasingly radicalized and its protests have attracted neo-Nazis and other right-wing extremists.
4. As with any robotics, there is the ………… question of whether jobs will be replaced by the devices.
5. Cypriot economy grows strongly in Q1 2023 …………  with signs of slowdown.
6. Three years of …………  restrictions under the zero-Covid policy, a crackdown on the tech and property sectors and growing tensions with the West have hammered the economy.
7. The files contain public information, …………  from state voter registration databases, like a person’s name, date of birth and address, as well as the election years in which the person has voted.
8. Unlike some other Twitter board members, Mr. Musk did not sign an agreement that ………… him from influencing the company’s policies.
9. A bill in Georgia would prohibit the state government from requiring a minor to obtain a work ………….
10. Xi has ………… a Chinese commitment to reducing carbon emissions; Lula has promised to reverse deforestation in the Amazon, after Bolsonaro promoted development there.
set 4

backlash 
compatible 
putative 
perspective
indispensable 
populous
tentatively 
subsequent  
viable
impelled 
1. Solar panels were not yet commercially ………… ; the mainstreaming of electric vehicles was still decades away.
2.The world’s most …………  country has reached a pivotal moment: China’s population has begun to shrink, after a steady, yearslong decline in its birthrate that experts say will be irreversible.
3.Many developing countries borrowed heavily over the past three years to cope with the pandemic and …………  economic downturn.
4. Mr. Biden approaches Irish issues from a sentimental rather than a diplomatic ………… .
5. In the political realm, the coronavirus has handed those who denounce immigration …………  evidence for their warnings.
6. African nations are confronting a massive wave of urbanization, …………  by rising living standards, agricultural mechanization and climate change.
7. Business leaders and top economists argue that reforms are needed to convince investors to start pouring money again into Latin America’s largest economy, which is …………  emerging from a deep recession.
8. The country’s central bank laws are not ………… with euro zone legislation on the European Central Bank and Bulgaria’s inflation is too high.
9. Qatar, many energy experts said, is becoming the Saudi Arabia of natural gas — an …………  energy supplier with vast reserves and very low costs.
10. The prospect of the Biden administration making trade deals that would benefit other nations could generate …………  in Washington.
set 5

evolve
pivotal 
bolster 
reinforced 
clout 
facilitating 
impacted
insulate  
stance 
profound
 
1. The EU has grown into a global economic powerhouse, but never developed security and defense ………… to match.
2. Elon Musk and other technology leaders have urged artificial intelligence labs to pause the training of the most advanced systems, warning in an open letter that A.I. tools present “…………  risks to society and humanity.”
3. In Germany, the eurozone’s biggest economy and the one most …………  by soaring energy costs, inflation has started to fall from double-digits in autumn.
4.The European Union has agreed to a $47 billion subsidy plan to ………… chip making in the bloc.
5. Countries such as Indonesia, India and Malaysia have restricted exports of cooking oil, wheat and chicken to ………… their domestic markets.
6. Mr. Macron’s move is seen as a …………  moment in a growing debate over nuclear power in Europe.
7. Nigeria’s central bank banned banks and financial institutions from dealing in or ………… transactions in digital currencies.
8. Public health experts say that while the pandemic’s perils have largely receded, they remain wary of future variants and note that the virus continues to ………… .
9. G7’s fundamental ………… is that currency rates are set by the market and that members will closely consult with each other on any action in the foreign exchange market.
10.The gender imbalance is …………  at the highest levels by a political agenda that has increasingly promoted conservative ideas about family structures and the role of women in society.
set 6

imperil 
curtailing 
nurture
inimical 
standoff
implying 
flawed   
surge 
clamped down
1. Texas and Arizona stand to face the brunt of the new ………… of migrants that’s already begun, even before the end of Title 42.
2. Sweden has …………  on immigration since the 2015 refugee crisis, under two straight terms of Social Democrat rule.
3. To keep the economy growing, China needs to ………… its consumer market and that requires more imports.
4. Huawei’s chief financial officer was released by Canadian authorities, ending a …………  with Washington over the tech giant’s dealings with Iran.
5. BBC Scotland revealed last month how NHS leaders in Scotland have discussed creating a «two-tier» health service by having the wealthy pay for treatment, and the possibility of …………  some free prescriptions.
6. In 2015, Beijing’s population planners finally concluded that the consequences of their awful “one child policy” were …………  to state interests.
7. Journals can withdraw papers for a number of legitimate reasons, like ………… data.
8. The prolonged political gridlock is likely to ………… access to billions of euros in EU recovery funds for the European Union’s poorest member state and hurt its prospects of joining the euro zone in 2024.
9. A Goldman Sachs estimate of the chance of a downturn over the coming year is 30 percent, much higher than normal but still far from ………… that a recession is inescapable.