Who established the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition? What country is at the head of the coalition?
While watching, pay attention to the following words and expressions in context. Use them in your answers to the questions below and discussion.
- to be a tool in smb’s hands
- to attack Yemen; to oust the president
- to open up the outer space; to make it available for
- to provide intelligence; rescue
- due to the concerns
- to take over large chunks of the Middle East
- to lead to a humanitarian catastrophe
- to reduce the coalition to
- to fail to achieve its primary objective
- to capture and kill recruits
- When was the coalition formed? Why didn’t all muslim countries join it?
- How did the coalition membership change due to the hostilities in the region. Provide the examples from the video.
- Does the video prove that this military coalition envisioned as Islamic NATO never fully materialized?
The Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition (IMCTC; Arabic: التحالف الإسلامي العسكري لمحاربة الإرهاب) is an intergovernmental counter-terrorist alliance of countries in the Muslim world, united around the War against the Islamic State and other counter-terrorist activities. Its creation was first announced by Saudi Arabian defence minister Mohammad bin Salman Al Saud, on 15 December 2015. The alliance was to have a joint operations center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
When the coalition was announced there were 34 members. Additional countries joined and the number of members reached 41 when Kenya joined on 1 September 2022. On 6 January 2017, the Former Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan General Raheel Sharif was named the IMCTC’s first commander-in-chief. Most of its participants are members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
History and objectives
IMCTC has stated that its primary objective is to protect Muslim countries from all terrorist groups and terrorist organizations irrespective of their sect and name. The IMCTC affirmed that it would operate in line with the United Nations and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) provisions on terrorism.
At the press conference to launch the IMCTC, Mohammad bin Salman said it would «coordinate» efforts to fight terrorism in Iraq, Syria, Libya, Egypt and Afghanistan. He said, «There will be international coordination with major powers and international organisations … in terms of operations in Syria and Iraq.»
To date, all members are countries with Sunni-dominated governments. The alliance does not include any countries with Shia-dominated governments, such as Iran, Iraq and Syria. According to a Euronews report, some analysts see formation of the alliance as part of Saudi Arabian efforts to take the leading role in the Middle East and the Muslim world, in rivalry with Iran.
In March 2016, it was reported that Saudi Arabia had asked the then Chief of Army Staff Raheel Sharif, to become commander-in-chief of the Islamic Military Alliance once he had retired from the Pakistan Army at the end of 2016.
Saudi Arabia’s original announcement of the alliance on 15 December 2015 listed 34 countries as participants, each also a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), and forming about 60% of all OIC member states. As of September 2022, there are 41 member countries with the joining of Kenya on 1 September 2022.
Prospective additional members
At the time of the original announcement, more than ten other Islamic countries, including Indonesia (the world’s largest Muslim populated nation), had expressed their support for the alliance, and Azerbaijan was discussing joining the alliance. In 2018, however, former deputy defense minister Sjafrie Sjamsoeddin [id] remarked that Indonesia’s non-alignment barred the country from joining a military alliance, adding that Vice President Jusuf Kalla had disagreed with Indonesia’s accession.
By January 2017, Azerbaijan said that joining was «not on the agenda». Tajikistan’s ambassador to Saudi Arabia confirmed that Tajikistan was seriously studying the possibility of joining.
To be a leader at the international level in counterterrorism and a prime partner in international efforts for preserving international peace and security.
Coordinate, unify and support efficiently and effectively the efforts of the IMCTC member countries in counterterrorism in the domains of ideology, communications, counterterrorist financing as well as in the military domain in partnership with friendly countries and international organizations.
1. Carry out Intellectual and awareness efforts to refute terrorist organizations narrative and disseminate true and moderate principles of Islam.
2. Develop a common communications narrative that educates the public opinion about the dangers of terrorism and counter terrorist propaganda.
3. Take effective measures that strengthen prevention, detection and curbing of terrorism financing.
4. Coordinate military and relief support to member countries to enable them to defeat armed terrorist groups and alleviate the suffering of local communities.
MATCH THE TERM WITH ITS DEFINITION:
|commander-in-chief||the person who exercises supreme command and control over an armed force or a military branch|
|primary objective||the intensity of; place restrictions on; put down by force or authority|
|irrespective||prove to be false or incorrect; overthrow by argument, evidence, or proof|
|affirm||not taking sides in political matters, esp. with either one of two opposing powers or ideologies|
|deputy||the main and important goal intended to be attained|
|non-alignment||a field or area of thought, subject; area of interest|
|confirm||to assert positively; to express agreement with; support; uphold|
|domain||a person appointed to act as a substitute for another|
|refute||without regard to something else, esp. something specified; ignoring or discounting|
|curb||to establish the truth of; verify; to acknowledge with assurance; make certain|
RESTORE THE SENTENCE BY FILLING IN THE KEY TERM:
|1. On 6 January 2017, the Former Chief of Army Staff of Pakistan General Raheel Sharif was named the IMCTC’s first ……………… Most of its participants are members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.|
|2. IMCTC has stated that its …………….. is to protect Muslim countries from all terrorist groups and terrorist organizations …………….. of their sect and name. The IMCTC …………….. that it would operate in line with the United Nations and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) provisions on terrorism.|
|3. In 2018, however, former …………….. defense minister Sjafrie Sjamsoeddin [id] remarked that Indonesia’s …………….. barred the country from joining a military alliance, adding that Vice President Jusuf Kalla had disagreed with Indonesia’s accession.|
|4. By January 2017, Azerbaijan said that joining was «not on the agenda». Tajikistan’s ambassador to Saudi Arabia …………….. that Tajikistan was seriously studying the possibility of joining.|
|5. Coordinate, unify and support efficiently and effectively the efforts of the IMCTC member countries in counterterrorism in the domains of ideology, communications, counterterrorist financing as well as in the military …………….. in partnership with friendly countries and international organizations.|
|6. Carry out Intellectual and awareness efforts to …………….. terrorist organizations narrative and disseminate true and moderate principles of Islam.|
|7. Take effective measures that strengthen prevention, detection and …………….. of terrorism financing.|
COMPLETE THE PASSAGE WITH THE WORDS FROM THE BOX:
Islamic Military Coalition against Terrorism Domains
Launches and sustains a journey to build a better tomorrow for generations to come, rooted in a consistent and global message that 1) …………….. the Islamic principles of tolerance and 2) …………….., and counters the narrative of violent extremist ideology through presenting the true nature of Islam and supporting ideological, psychological, and social reforms.
Develop, produce, and 3) …………….. factual, scholarly and engaging 4) …………….. on Coalition-owned or third-party communication and media platforms and channels, with the aim of 5) …………….. the appeal of violent extremism, 6) …………….. hope and optimism, and measuring the impact on mindsets and behaviors.
When requested, it assists in the coordination of resourcing and planning of member country military operations, facilitates the 7) …………….. sharing of military information, and encourages military counter terror capacity and capability building to deter aggression and violence.
Counter Terrorism Financing (CTF)
In collaboration and coordination with the competent authorities in the Coalition Member Countries in CTF, it promotes best practices, 8) …………….. legal, regulatory, and operational 9) …………….. , and facilitates information sharing to support prevention, detection, and 10) …………….. operations.
Terrorism is presently 1) a/ the major national security threat for a large number of countries around the world 2),/ x and IMAFT is an intergovernmental association purposed for a security arrangement. Therefore, 3) despite/ in spite its seemingly atypical inception and objective, IMAFT adequately reflects the defining essence of the concept of 4) the/ x military alliance. 5) As/ Although limiting 6) IMAFT/ IMAFT’s mission to the 7) specific/ special objective of fighting terrorism may suggest that this is a coalition association, the task of fighting widespread international terrorism requires 8) sustained/ sustainable interstate cooperation. By committing itself 9) for/ to fighting terrorism, IMAFT’s mission does not appear to have a definite term. 10) Therefore,/ However, it is not a provisional coalition meant to address a specific transient security threat; rather it is a military alliance set for a broad and long-term security mission.
In order for IMAFT to function as a collective security arrangement, it needs to use military force against terrorist groups that operate from strongholds in a number of 11) the/ x Arab and Muslim countries. From the 12) viewpoint/ standpoint of international law, Article 2(4) of the United Nations Charter prohibits the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, and the restrictive interpretation of this ban had constrained the international community’s ability to 13) employ/ deploy extraterritorial military force against terrorist groups. Growing international pressure 14) on/ against terrorism since 2009, however, has resulted in relaxing the constraints placed on states’ legal right to fight terrorist groups stationed in foreign countries, especially when states exercise this right 15) through/ of multilateral action.