• read the article paying attention to focus words
  • summarise the main ideas, identify the author’s message
  • comment on the ideas expressed by the author
  • compose 3 questions for discussion


deterудерживать, останавливать
apparentlyпо-видимому, очевидно, вероятно
incentiveстимул, побуждение
implicationсмысл, значение, подтекст
exposeподвергать, показывать
embraceвключать, заключать в себе, охватывать
resilienceстойкость, жизнеспособность
robustкрепкий, сильный, устойчивый
shiftменять, изменять, перемещать


  1. a reduction in
  2. central to
  3. implication for 
  4. reaction to 
  5. expose to
  6. shelter from
  7. at any rate
  8. revert to
  9. exemplify by
  10. response to 
  11. at a pace
  12. critical for
  13. credited with 
  14. accuse of
  15. at the level

What Stopped Globalization?

Sep 20, 2022 Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg

Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg, a former World Bank Group chief economist and editor-in-chief of the American Economic Review, is Professor of Economics at Yale University.

Globalization survived Brexit and Donald Trump, and it appeared to be thriving even after the COVID-19 pandemic. But with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the economic “mutual assured destruction” that was supposed to deter decoupling apparently reached its limits.

NEW HAVEN – After decades of unprecedented openness, international economic relations have entered a new era, characterized by mistrust and division. Given the potential costs of this shift, it is worth retracing how we got here. 

Following the end of the Cold War, globalization brought about a drastic reduction in extreme poverty, not least by enabling East Asian countries, including China, to achieve rapid growth and development. Living standards (as measured by income per capita) also improved globally. Open trade and market-oriented policies were central to this progress. Trade with low-wage (at the time) countries – such as China, Mexico, South Korea, and Vietnam – kept goods prices and wages in advanced economies in check, benefiting both consumers in these countries and workers in the exporting economies. Economic interconnectedness arguably also contributed significantly to the long period of peace enjoyed by the Western world. In the era of so-called hyper-globalization, war meant disruption of far-flung supply chains, with severe economic consequences. In such a system, everyone has an incentive to behave. 

The transition from interconnectedness to fragmentation has occurred in three distinct phases, each with its own causes and implications for the future of globalization. The first phase began in 2016, with the ascendance of inward-looking politics in two former bastions of globalization. With Brexit, the United Kingdom rejected integration with Europe. And by electing Donald Trump as president, the United States embraced an “America first” ethos that opened the way for a trade war with China. These developments were reactions, first and foremost, to rising inequality. While the average person globally was better off at the end of the 2010s than in 1980, many developed-country workers increasingly felt left behind. 

It was not just a feeling. Communities that were more exposed to import competition from low-wage countries – a result of pre-existing spatial industrialization patterns – did worse than communities that were sheltered from imports (compare, for example, Hickory, North Carolina, a traditional factory town, and California’s Silicon Valley). But it was also nothing new. Trade has long been known to improve general welfare, while also generating distributional tensions. The policy response most economists recommended is nothing new, either: rather than embrace protectionism, countries should pursue some form of redistribution. At any rate, there was little reason to believe that the backlash that began in 2016 would spell doom for globalization. The world was too interconnected to revert to the old regime. Then came phase two: the COVID-19 pandemic. A pandemic is one of the greatest risks globalization raises. The more interconnected countries are, the easier it is for disease to spread among them. At the same time, it can spur an every-country-for-itself mentality, exemplified by the export restrictions and other inward-looking policies that governments implemented in response to the crisis. Shortages of essential goods like personal protective equipment and supply bottlenecks provided more fuel for the argument that global supply chains could not be trusted. Many concluded that the “dependencies” created by international trade were sources of vulnerability. Building “resilience” through shorter, more localized supply chains became the order of the day. Yet the global trading system proved remarkably robust during the past two years. According to the International Monetary Fund, global trade, as measured by the ratio of merchandise imports to world GDP, has increased since 2019. Most shortages proved to be short-lived. Several other supply-chain bottlenecks – such as the recent baby-formula shortage in the US – had domestic, not global, causes. In fact, bottlenecks would probably have been much worse without international trade. So, despite an unprecedented public-health shock, the global economy kept going – wounded and at a much slower pace than before, but still with good prospects eventually to recover. Then Russia invaded Ukraine, and phase three began. The smooth functioning of global supply chains requires peace, stability, and predictability. The war has eroded trust among countries and shifted expectations about geopolitical alliances, spurring calls for “reshoring” or “friend-shoring” in the name of “economic security.” If, for example, China invades Taiwan, what happens to a global economy that depends on chips produced by a single company, TSMC, on the island? The war in Ukraine has thus achieved what soaring domestic inequality and the COVID-19 pandemic could not. It is one thing to rely on your friends, even if this implies hardship for some workers in your domestic market; it is entirely something else to rely on your enemies. And so, the economic “mutual assured destruction” that was supposed to deter deglobalization has apparently reached its limits. Now, countries are seeking to build resilience by turning inward, embracing industrial policies for sectors that are viewed as critical for national security, such as semiconductors and energy. But whether this approach will succeed is far from certain. History teaches us that, when industrial policy works, it really works. But it is hard to know what will succeed ex ante. China is often credited with (or accused of) relying on industrial policy to promote growth. But it was also responsible for one of industrial policy’s biggest failures: the Great Leap Forward, which caused up to 55 million deaths by the time it ended in 1962. As for the policies that did succeed, careful, piecemeal implementation was vital. Reforms were tested at the local and regional levels first, and scaled up only when they had demonstrated their potential. But “crossing the river by feeling the stones,” as Deng Xiaoping put it, takes time, and time is not on Western economies’ side right now.Complicating matters further, semiconductors are characterized by “massive modularity,” meaning that each unit produced comprises several interconnected functional modules that can be broken down into more specialized modules, each with its own standards, innovation potential, and market structure. Whether such processes can be replicated domestically within a short period of time is questionable. We should remember that centrally planned systems failed because they could not keep up with the increasing complexity of modern economic systems. It seems we have crossed the Rubicon in international economic relations, leaving globalization behind. The challenge now will be to find our bearings as the consequences play out.


  1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of globalization? What is the future for globalization? What should countries do to prevent the decline of globalization? Should they?
  2. How can countries balance national interests with the need for global cooperation to address common challenges?
  3. Can globalization be altered and transformed to promote greater equity and sustainability, or is it fundamentally flawed?





deterкрепкий, сильный, устойчивый
apparentlyподвергать, показывать
unprecedentedменять, изменять, перемещать 
incentiveудерживать, останавливать 
exposeстойкость, жизнеспособность 
embraceсмысл, значение, подтекст
resilienceпо-видимому, очевидно, вероятно
robustстимул, побуждение
shiftвключать, заключать в себе, охватывать 


deterwithout previous instance; never before known/ experienced
apparentlyinferred, deduced or entailed 
unprecedentedthe ability to adjust, recover, to respond to disruptive process
incentiveto discourage or restrain from acting or proceeding
implicationstrong and healthy; hardy; vigorous
exposeto accept or adopt willingly; to include or contain
embraceas far as can be known or supposed; obviously; clearly
resilienceto lay open to danger, attack, harm; to present to view; exhibit
robustto put aside/ replace; exchange, to transfer 
shifta positive motivational influence; an additional payment


deteruncommon, unique , unusual, unexampled, unparalleled
apparentlyconsequence, ramification, outcome, repercussions, effects
unprecedentedmotivation, motive, stimulus
incentivesturdy, tough, dynamic, powerful 
implicationuncover, reveal, disclose; display, exhibit 
exposehinder, hamper, impede, inhibit, curb, prevent, forestall
embracemodify, vary, adjust, alter 
resilienceseemingly, evidently, allegedly, supposedly, presumably 
robustflexibility, strength, stamina, adaptability
shiftadopt, follow, support, include, enclose, encompass


deterpolitical/ to consider/ of the theory
apparentlyto the sun/ high temperatures/ to ridicule/ criticism
unprecedentedtrespassers/ thieves/ burglars/ speeding/ theft/ vandalism
incentivemethod/ framework/ approach/ system/ economy
implicationidea/ concept/ philosophy/ change, diversity/ technology
exposegoing to rain / an accident/ suicide/ murder
embraceextreme/ of workers/ the economy/ to shocks/ boost
resilienceopinion/ perspective/ blame/ responsibility/ emphasis
robustdecision/ social event/ fall/ increase/ level/ extent/ degree
shiftfinancial/ cash/ strong/ for creating/ for people 


1. Smaller companies are generally more ………… to fluctuations in the U.S. economy, because larger firms generate a sizable share of revenue overseas.
2. China’s economy grew at a faster-than-expected pace in the first quarter thanks to ………… services consumption, but factory output has lagged amid weak global growth.
3. The initiative aims to create tax ………… for private investment in areas with high poverty and low job growth.
4. Netanyahu and Biden have publicly touted the durability of their friendship and their countries’ alliance, but the growing tensions carry ………… for the domestic politics of both nations.
5. A report by the human rights group concludes that Israeli forces conducted ………… disproportionate air strikes which killed Palestinian civilians.
6. While the domestic political battles hang in the balance, the election is not likely to signal a major ………… in Bangkok’s foreign policy balancing act.
7. South Africa has many reasons to ………… a speedy transition.
8. In South Korea, all able-bodied men are required to serve in uniform 18-21 months under a system meant to ………… aggression from rival North Korea.
9. Mr. Biden has struggled to find answers to the ………… levels of illegal immigration at the border as he tries to navigate between deterrence and welcome.
10.The programme is designed to support start-ups developing circular solutions in areas such as food, energy, mobilisation, construction and climate ………….


1. achieve a)  inward-looking politics
2. economic b) trust
3. ascendance of c) distributional tensions
4. rejectd) deglobalization 
5. improve e) rapid growth and development
6. generate f) the potential
7. revert to g) general welfare
8. erodeh) interconnectedness
9. deter i) the old regime
10. demonstratej) integration


E.g. _____________ deter mass migration _____________

Historically, there is no conclusive evidence that more aggressive enforcement and more punitive sanctions deter mass migration.

  1. _________ designed to deter _________
  2. _________ apparently relevant to _________
  3. _________ faces an unprecedented threat _________
  4. _________ economic incentives for _________
  5. _________ could have implications far beyond _________
  6. _________ exposed the vulnerability _________
  7. _________ embraced the broader idea of _________
  8. _________ demonstrates the job market’s resilience _________
  9. _________ the job market continues to be robust _________
  10. _________ to shift the responsibility _________


  1. a reduction ___
  2. central ___
  3. implication ___
  4. reaction ___
  5. expose ___
  6. shelter ___
  7. ___ any rate
  8. revert ___
  9. exemplify ___
  10. response ___ 
  11. ___ a pace
  12. critical ___
  13. credited ___
  14. accuse ___
  15. ___ the level


  1. The EU …………… from a number of problems that ……………… for many years, but never seemed to be that urgent.
  1. has suffered; are widely discussed
  2. is suffering; were widely discussed
  3. is suffering; have been widely discussed
  4. is suffering; have widely discussed

2.By the 2000s, cases of forced migration …………….., but migrant workers from Central Asia ……….. the Russian labor market. 

  1. had been sharply decreased; were flooding
  2. had sharply decreased; were flooding
  3. sharply decreased; were flooding
  4. had sharply decreased; were flooded

3. The demographic expansion …………… just as many existing jobs …………… by intelligent automation and AI.

  1. happens; will be substituted
  2. happens; will be substituting
  3. has happened; will be substituted
  4. is happening; will be substituted

4. In Washington and London, this deal to provide Australia with US-made nuclear submarines ……….. as one of the most significant strategic advances in decades, even though it …………….. France.

  1. is being framed; has infuriated
  2. is framed; is infuriated
  3. is being framing; has infuriated
  4. is being framed; has been infuriated

5. If the Kremlin ………. to take control of the country’s resources, it ………… in a confrontation with China, which it cannot afford.

  1. try; end up
  2. tries; ends up
  3. will try; will end up
  4. tries; will end up

6. The COMESA and EAC regions already have functional competition-policy regimes and institutions, which ……… serve as models for the CFTA.

  1. ought
  2. can
  3. is able to
  4. has to

7. …………. with these disruptive shifts, ASEAN must strengthen its community.

  1. Facing
  2. Having facing
  3. Being faced
  4. Faced

8. The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, for example, are India’s third— and fourth-largest trade partners, ………….

  1. therefore
  2. respectively
  3. in due course
  4. duly 

9. Saudi Arabia’s move to join the SCO represents a victory for China, ……… has been seeking to boost its geopolitical influence and challenge the current United States-led international order.

  1. which
  2. who
  3. what
  4. _____ 

10. …………., Southeast Asia’s countries carry little weight; collectively, …………. , they represent almost a tenth of the world’s population and nearly 5% of its GDP.

  1. Individually; yet
  2. Individually; however
  3. Respectively; although
  4. Particularly; however

удерживать, останавливать
to discourage or restrain from acting or proceeding

hinder, hamper, impede, inhibit, curb, prevent, forestall

(to) deter [trespassers, thieves, burglars]
(to) deter [speeding, theft, vandalism]
по-видимому, очевидно,
as far as can be known or supposed; obviously; clearly

seemingly, evidently, allegedly, supposedly, presumably 

apparently, it is [going, supposed] to [rain, storm, snow] 
was apparently an [accident, suicide, murder]
apparently it was an [accident]
apparently, we’re not [allowed, going, supposed] to
without previous instance; never before known/ experienced

uncommon, unique , unusual, unexampled, unparalleled

an unprecedented decision
an unprecedented [display, performance] (of)
an unprecedented [social, sporting, political] event
an unprecedented [rise, fall, growth, increase, decrease] (in)
an unprecedented [level, extent, degree] of [CO2, lead, unemployment]
unprecedented [personal, economic, financial] growth
unprecedented in [modern, human, political] terms
стимул, побуждение
a positive motivational influence; an additional payment (or other remuneration) to employees as a means of increasing output

motivation, motive, stimulus

a [financial, cash, tax] incentive
a [little, strong] incentive (to)[tax]
incentives for [creating, employing, reducing]
an incentive to [make, help, get, keep]
offer their [employees, workers]
an incentive (to)an investment incentive
incentives for [people, companies, citizens]
incentives and rewards
inferred, deduced or entailed 

consequence, result, ramification, outcome, repercussions, effects

political implications
to consider the implications of 
the implications of the theory
подвергать, показывать
to lay open to danger, attack, or harm; to present to view;exhibit

uncover, reveal, disclose; display, exhibit 

expose your [skin, face, eyes] to the sun
expose to [high, low, freezing] temperatures
the [politician, student, teacher] was exposed to [ridicule, criticism]
exposed to [the elements, bad language]
заключать в себе, охватывать
to accept or adopt willingly; to include or contain

adopt, follow, support, include, enclose, encompass 

embrace the [idea, thought, concept, words, philosophy] of
embrace [change, diversity]
embrace [technology, the modern world, the new way of life, their culture]
стойкость, жизнеспособность
the ability of a person to adjust to or recover readily from illness, adversity, major life changes; the ability of a system or organization to respond to or recover readily from a crisis, disruptive process

flexibility, strength, stamina, adaptability

[tough, strong, weak, no, little] resilience
[extreme, great, remarkable] resiliencethe
resilience of [workers, consumers, the economy, a nation]
resilience to [trauma, setbacks, attacks, shocks]
[build up, develop, improve, boost] resilience
resilience to [high temperatures, extreme pressure]
сильный, устойчивый
strong and healthy; hardy; vigorous

sturdy, tough, dynamic, powerful 


a robust [method, framework]
a robust approach towardsa
robust [system, program, version]
a robust economy
robust [growth, expansion, health]
изменять, перемещать
to put aside/ replace; change or exchange, to transfer from one place, position, person, etc., to another 


modify, vary, adjust, alter 


shift your [position, opinion] on
shift sides to 
shift your [thinking, perspective, ideas]
shifting towards [greater, higher, better] [communism, the left]
shift away from the [noise, flash]
shift the [burden, blame, responsibility, burden, emphasis]