• read the article paying attention to the words in bold
  • summarize the main ideas
  • comment on the ideas expressed by the author
  • compose 3 questions for discussion


multifaceted многосторонний, многоаспектный
shoveустранять, отталкивать
empowerуполномочивать, давать возможность
toutрекламировать, расхваливать
dubious сомнительный, подозрительный, колеблющийся
stemзадерживать, приостановить 
resentmentнегодование, возмущение
realign перестраивать, реконструировать
savvy умелый, опытный, здравомыслящий, продвинутый
acknowledgeпризнавать, подтверждать, сознавать, допускать


  1. at the expense of 
  2. competing with
  3. withdrawal from 
  4. benefit from 
  5. support for 
  6. central to
  7. capable of
  8. in common with 
  9. dependence on 
  10. retreat from

Sep 29, 2021 Mark Leonard

In their new security and technology arrangement with Australia, America and Britain have achieved tactical gains at the expense of strategic goals in the Indo-Pacific. In fact, given how deeply the deal has divided the West, the biggest long-term winner may well be China.

BERLIN – The geopolitical story of the last few years has featured Western democracies’ gradual awakening to the realities of an increasingly ambitious and authoritarian China. European countries have gone from competing with each other to be China’s best friend to sharing the view that China represents a profound, multifaceted challenge.

For example, on global issues such as climate change, European governments must now find a way to work effectively with a difficult partner. On economic and technological issues such as artificial intelligence, China has emerged as a fierce competitor. And on human rights, democracy, and the role of the state in the economy, it is now seen as a “systemic rival.” In addition to becoming more realistic about China, Europeans are also becoming more engaged with Asia. France led the pack in 2016 by signing a deal to provide Australia with its diesel-powered Barracuda submarines, and by inspiring the rest of Europe to develop a new strategy for the Indo-Pacific. Its position on China in recent years has been light years away from that of British Prime Minister Tony Blair, French President Jacques Chirac, and German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, who supported ending a European Union embargo on arms sales to China and granting that country “market economy status.” But now France has been shoved aside by AUKUS, a new security and technology alliance between the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. In Washington and London, this deal to provide Australia with US-made nuclear submarines is being framed as one of the most significant strategic advances in decades, even though it has infuriated France. For the US, AUKUS comes hot on the heels of its chaotic withdrawal from Afghanistan, and thus is being held up as evidence that the Biden administration is serious, competent, and tough on foreign policy. Furnishing Australia with a nuclear-powered submarine fleet will significantly extend America’s own ability to project power in the Indo-Pacific – hence China’s displeasure at the pact. AUKUS is also the first and (so far) only expression of “Global Britain,” the newly empowered global player that was supposed to arise after Brexit. The deal is being touted as proof that the UK’s “special relationship” with the US is robust. Even the French could benefit from the new arrangement. By pointing to yet another example of American flakiness, France can bolster its own case for pursuing European strategic autonomy. 

Since news of the deal broke, there have been attempts to lower the temperature between Western powers. US President Joe Biden has called French President Emmanuel Macron, admitted that the “situation would have benefited from open consultations among allies,” and promised more US support for France’s anti-terrorism campaign in the Sahel. Now that the French have blown off some steam (by temporarily recalling their ambassadors to the US and Australia), many American foreign-policy observers seem to think there will be a return to business as usual. Yet whatever tactical advances the US, the UK, and Australia may have made, the strategic gains to be had from AUKUS are dubious at best. Yes, the Indo-Pacific is central to America’s competition with China, and a well-equipped Australia can enhance US naval control over that theater. But there are other, more important battlegrounds to consider. As we have seen, the China challenge is also about the regulation of AI, global finance, and green technologies and infrastructure. On these issues, the EU has far more to contribute than Australia or the UK does. It is in America’s own long-term interest that the EU become more of a sovereign power capable of participating in the defense of shared Western values and interests. By humiliating France, the one EU member state that has openly embraced deeper engagement in the Indo-Pacific, the Biden administration has made this outcome less likely. And the UK has been no less myopic. Having left the EU, it is struggling to develop relationships with other countries that have less in common with it than its immediate European neighbors do. Even a committed Brexiteer would have trouble arguing that Australia is more important to British military and trade interests than are France or other continental Europeans. It is not Australia that can help the UK by providing emergency truck drivers or stemming the flow of migrants across the English Channel. But the French are not blameless. Most other EU members see France’s foreign-policy agenda as ultimately anti-American, so the best way to bring them along would be to convince them otherwise. Reducing Europe’s dependence on the US thus should be framed as a pro-American project that will help both Europe and the US confront the challenges of the twenty-first century. By precipitating a major transatlantic spat and confirming EU Atlanticists’ suspicion that it harbors anti-American resentment, France has undercut its own goals.

It is not too late to realign the various strategies being pursued by Western powers. France, the UK, and the US may have generated headlines with moves that feel tactically savvy and emotionally satisfying. But China may turn out to be the strategic winner. Rather than fighting over submarines, Western democracies should be exploring how their Indo-Pacific strategies might complement one another on other critical fronts such as the digital economy, trade, and climate change. Achieving that kind of alignment could provide a foundation for bringing on other major partners such as Japan, South Korea, and India. China’s response to AUKUS implicitly acknowledges this. It has applied to join the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, a major deal that was originally promoted by the Obama administration to contain China’s economic rise. In the decade since its negotiation, the US has lost its interest in trade deals, and China has been exploiting its retreat from the global stage. China’s cynical move to take America’s place in the CPTPP shows a ruthless pragmaticism that could leave Western approaches – including AUKUS – looking flat-footed. 
Mark Leonard, Director of the European Council on Foreign Relations, is the author of The Age of Unpeace: How Connectivity Causes Conflict (Bantam Press, 2021).


  1. How has Europe’s view of China changed in recent years?

2. What are some of the challenges European governments face in working with China on global issues like climate change?

3. How has France led the way in developing a new strategy for the Indo-Pacific?




multifaceted многосторонний, многоаспектный
shoveпризнавать, подтверждать, сознавать, допускать
empowerрекламировать, расхваливать
toutумелый, опытный, здравомыслящий, продвинутый
dubious устранять, отталкивать
stemуполномочивать, давать возможность
resentmentсомнительный, подозрительный, колеблющийся
realign перестраивать, реконструировать
savvy задерживать, приостановить 
acknowledgeнегодование, возмущение


multifaceted to check or slow down, restrain, stop, control 
shoveto admit to be real or true, to show or express recognition of; to show or express appreciation for
empowera feeling of displeasure or anger because of an insult or other wrong
touthaving many aspects or phases
dubious publicize or promote; praise extravagantly
stemreturn smth to a former position or place, line the objects up or restore them to a previous balance
resentmentto bump, push, shove, elbow roughly or rudely
realign marked by practical hardheaded intelligence; experienced and well-informed
savvy to give official or legal power or authority to, to provide with an ability; enable
acknowledgeunsure; uncertain in opinion; hesitant


multifaceted debatable, disputable, hesitant, doubtful, uncertain
shoveauthorize, permit, entitle, legitimize, motivate, encourage
empowerindignation, discontent, annoyance, frustration
toutastute, sharp, shrewd, smart
dubious many-sided, varied, diverse, disparate, inconsistent
stemrealine, adjust, line up
resentmentpraise, promote, acclaim
realign admit, recognize, accept, uphold, confirm, endorse
savvy depart, push, jostle, nudge
acknowledgeprevent, curb, suppress, contain, hinder, halt, stifle


multifaceted accomplishments, legislative achievements, the program
shovefeel, cause, create, generate, breed, harbour/ hide, suppress, restrain
empowercrisis, conflict, approach, experience, problem
toutexistence, presence, necessity/ responsibility, actions/ importance, facts, reality, evidence
dubious women, children, people/ through knowledge, information, education
stemthe flow, the tide of mass resignations, the rate of declines
resentmentthe project with a vision, operations, courses, systems
realign the economy into a recession, money into lower-risk investments, production from, into partnerships
savvy proposition, quality, of the possibility, distinction
acknowledgeusers, steps, investment, business consultant 



1. Federal regulations …………. the president to add or remove countries from AGOA, a process that is administered through the Office of the U.S.
2. Economists and markets are …………., and even central bankers acknowledge that there are risks.
3. The conservative president at the time, Sebastián Piñera, …………. that excessive force had been used to quell the protests and promised reforms.
4. The negotiators also want to pave the way for broader talks to resolve Yemen’s …………. political conflict and repair its demolished economy.
5. The Indian government has deployed 40,000 soldiers, paramilitary troops and police to the region in an attempt to …………. the latest round of violence.
6. President Biden’s envoys are pushing ahead with their effort to …………. Middle East politics by brokering the establishment of diplomatic relations between Saudi Arabia and Israel despite significant concessions demanded by the Saudi monarchy.
7. France’s soldiers were ordered to leave last year and there has been rising …………. of the former colonial power and its present-day relationship with Mali, and West Africa more broadly.
8. Mr. Ramaswamy’s resilience was in part a result of the …………. way he structured his web of biotechnology companies.
9. The chief economist thinks the euro and the yen will be …………. higher, requiring the European Central Bank and Bank of Japan to respond.
10. The Biden administration is working on a new National AI Strategy that the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy has …………. as taking a whole-of-society approach.


1. pursuea) advances
2. achieve b) naval control over 
3. embrace c) the challenges
4. significant strategicd) tactical gains 
5. relationship ise) a major transatlantic spat 
6. contain f) strategic goals
7. at the expense of g) economic rise
8. precipitateh) robust
9. enhance i) deeper engagement
10. confront j) strategic autonomy


E.g. _____________ have historically been multifaceted _____________

Saudi-Russian relations have historically been multifaceted and have only rarely aligned completely.

  1. _________ the multifaceted approach _________
  2. _________ shove the economy into a recession _________
  3. _________ were hired and empowered to tackle _________
  4. _________ tout the personalized service _________
  5. _________ dubious data _________
  6. _________ efforts to stem the increase _________
  7. _________ mainly driven by resentment at _________
  8. _________ would realign the nation toward _________
  9. _________ is savvy enough to _________
  10. _________ acknowledged a problem _________


  1. __ the expense __ 
  2. competing __ 
  3. withdrawal __ 
  4. benefit __ 
  5. support __ 
  6. central __ 
  7. capable __ 
  8. __ common __ 
  9. dependence __ 
  10. retreat __ 


  1. Bosnia ________ EU entry but the Bosnian Serb separatist drive and inner political bickering ________ the effort.
  1. is seeking; have stalled
  2. has been seeking; has stalled
  3. seeks; are stalling
  4. was seeking; stalled

2. Members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) ________ for decades to form a regional grid to facilitate multilateral power trade, but progress ________ to bilateral deals between countries.

  1. are trying; is limited
  2. try; is being limited
  3. have been trying; has been limited
  4. have tried; is limiting

3. During the upcoming event, the Secretary General ________ the challenges facing the OSCE as well as the Organization’s role in European and Eurasian security. 

  1. is to address
  2. is addressing
  3. will be addressing
  4. will address

4. 15 new floating nuclear power plants ________ appear along the Northern Sea Route in Russia in the next few years as Rosatom sees such a volume of potential demand from development in the region.

  1. may
  2. must
  3. should
  4. have to

5. BRI (Belt and Road Initiative) transport projects have the potential to substantially improve trade, foreign investment, and living conditions for citizens in participating countries—but only if China and other corridor economies ________ deeper policy reforms that increase transparency, expand trade, improve debt sustainability and mitigate environmental, social and corruption risks.

  1. will adopt
  2. is to adopt
  3. adopted
  4. adopt

6. BRICS has become an all-round and multi-level framework, with the BRICS Summit ________  a leading role, ________ by BRICS Meetings of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Meetings of National Security Advisers.

  1. having played; having supported
  2. played; supporting
  3. is playing; is supporting
  4. playing; supported

7. Training simulators can communicate with several types of helicopter training simulators representing the Black Hawk, Apache, and CH-47 Chinook transport helicopter, ________ with the MQ-1C Gray Eagle and RQ-7 Shadow drones.

  1. besides
  2. only
  3. as well as
  4. apart

8. All migrant workers and their dependents entering a GCC country are issued a resident visa under the authority of a sponsor (kafil) ________ wishes to hire the foreign worker.

  1. who
  2. which
  3. , that
  4. , who

9. Connectivity revenues are expected to grow just 3 to 5 percent, ________ online services are likely to grow at more than 15 percent compound annual growth rate (CAGR) over the next five years.

  1. whereas
  2. as
  3. while
  4. since

10. Sen. Roger Wicker, ________ the fact that he supports AUKUS, blocked a plan to fast-track Congress’s authorization to sell Australia three Virginia-class attack subs, a major pillar of the multinational agreement announced this year. 

  1. inspite
  2. despite
  3. due 
  4. regarding
многосторонний, многоаспектный
having many aspects or phases

many-sided, varied, diverse, disparate, inconsistent

crisis, conflict, approach, experience, problem
to bump, push, shove, elbow roughly or rudely

depart, push, jostle, nudge

the economy into a recession, money into lower-risk investments, production from, into partnerships
to give official or legal power or authority to, to provide with an ability; enable

authorize, permit, entitle, legitimize, motivate, encourage

women, children, people/ through knowledge, information, education
рекламировать, расхваливать
publicize or promote; praise extravagantly

praise, promote, acclaim

accomplishments, legislative achievements, the program 
сомнительный, подозрительный, колеблющийся
unsure; uncertain in opinion; hesitant

debatable, disputable, hesitant, doubtful, uncertain

proposition, quality, of the possibility, distinction
задерживать, приостановить
to check or slow down, restrain, stop, control 

prevent, curb, suppress, contain, hinder, halt, stifle

the flow, the tide of mass resignations, the rate of declines
a feeling of displeasure or anger because of an insult or other wrong

indignation, discontent, annoyance, frustration

feel, cause, create, generate, breed, harbour/ hide, suppress, restrain
перестраивать, реконструировать
return smth to a former position or place, line the objects up or restore them to a previous balance

realine, adjust, line up

the project with a vision, operations, courses, systems
здравомыслящий, продвинутый
marked by practical hardheaded intelligence; experienced and well-informed

astute, sharp, shrewd, smart

users, steps, investment, business consultant 
to admit to be real or true, to show or express recognition of; to show or express appreciation for

admit, recognize, accept, uphold, confirm, endorse

existence, presence, necessity/ responsibility, actions/ importance, facts, reality, evidence