ESI

Автор: Татьяна Яблокова

GLOSSARY

A

accommodate — to adapt, adjust

acquire — come into possession or ownership; obtain

admission — the process or fact of entering or being allowed to enter an organization

alter — to make different, modify

availability — easily obtainable and ready for use

B

C

common currency — money system for more than one country

common market — a formal agreement where a group is formed amongst several countries that adopt a common external tariff

compete — the economic scenario in which enterprises put effort to be leaders in their industry and increase their market share

counterbalance — have an equal but opposite effect on something in a positive way

customs procedures — the set of managements and operations that are carried out related to a specific customs destination

customs union — groups of countries that apply one common system of procedures, rules and tariffs for all or almost all their imports, exports and transiting goods

D

E

economic bloc — a set of countries which engage in international trade together, and are usually related through a free trade agreement or other association

economic union — an agreement between two or more nations to allow goods, services, money and workers to move over borders freely

emerge — become known or apparent

employment — a relationship between two parties regulating the provision of paid labour services

F

fiscal policies — the use of government spending and tax policies to influence economic conditions, especially macroeconomic conditions

free trade agreement — a pact between two or more nations to reduce barriers to imports and exports among them

free trade area — a free trade area is a region in which a group of countries has signed a free trade agreement and maintain little or no barriers to trade in the form of tariffs or quotas between each other

G

governance — the act of exercising authority

gross domestic product (GDP) — the total monetary or market value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period

H

I

influx — an arrival of a large number of people or things at the same time

interconnect — be interwoven or linked closely together

interdependence — a reciprocal relation between interdependent entities

J

K

L

M

market access — the ability of a company or country to sell goods and services across borders

market expansion — a growth strategy which involves offering your existing product/service to a new market

N

non state actors — organizations and/or individuals not directed or funded by any government

O

P

participation — the act of becoming involved in the activities of a group

per capita income — a measure of the amount of money earned per person in a nation or geographic region

purchasing power — the amount of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency

policy-making — the activity of deciding on new policies, especially by a government or political party

preferential treatment — any concession or privilege granted to the party

Q

R

reduction — the act of making something smaller in size, amount, number

regional economic integration — a process in which two or more countries agree to eliminate economic barriers, with the end goal of enhancing productivity and achieving greater economic interdependence

representative body — a body or persons (an association, trade union, works council) chosen to make decisions or craft the policy on behalf of  a larger group

restriction — a limiting condition or measure, especially a legal one

S

social welfare policies — aim to protect citizens who may be considered poor, unemployed, unhealthy, or marginalized from their community

sovereignty — the right to have absolute and unlimited power, either legal or political, within the territory of a state

standards harmonization — technical specifications meeting the essential requirements of the EU directives

subsidiarity — the principle of devolving decisions to the lowest practical level

T

U

V

W

withdraw — to separate formally from membership in a state, union, or other political entity

X

Y

Z

FOCUS WORDS

SET WEEK 1/2

FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS
advance
способствовать; приближать,
ускорять; продвигаться
definition
to move or go forward; proceed; to increase in quantity, value, price; to improve or make progress; to grow or rise in importance, status

synonyms
move forward, proceed, go forward, continue, progress

collocations
advance [with caution, carefully, slowly]
advance in [your career, in the company]
advance through [time, the years, generations]
advance [humanity, society, the nation, your career][failed, efforts] to advance (the) [negotiations, talks]
advance the [understanding, development, cause] of
pursue
преследовать,
продолжать,
заниматься;
искать, добиваться
definition
to follow in order to overtake; to strive to gain; seek to attain or accomplish

synonyms
follow, track, engage, participate

collocations
to pursue a goal
to pursue an aim/objective
to pursue a policy 
to pursue a career
attend to
обращать внимание; 
уделять внимание
definition
pay attention to; take seriously; to deal with somebody/something

synonyms
assist, take care of, look after

collocations
attend to [business, the matter at hand]
(have) [business] to attend 
to attend to the needs
asset
имущество; средства; активы; ценное качество, вклад
definition
a useful or valuable quality, item

synonyms
belongings, holding, property, aid, benefit, resource, service

collocations
[public, private] assets
[digital, capital, real, total, net] assets
is a [liquid, fixed, variable] asset
is [an important, an essential, a valuable] asset (to)
an asset of the [public, people, company]
[allocate, invest, protect, insure, liquidate, sell off] your assets
has [a number, many] assets
priority
приоритет
definition
status established in order of importance or urgency 

synonyms
precedence

collocations
should be treated as a priority
should be considered a priority
your [number one, top] priority
it is your [number one] priority to [go, pick up, find, complete] this [project, assignment, task]
is your [number one] priority
make it your [number one] priority
it is a priority to [ensure, provide, get]
is of the [utmost, highest] priority
has never been a priority
undergo
подвергаться,
испытывать,
переносить
definition
to be subjected to; experience; pass through, to endure;
sustain; suffer

synonyms
to experience; to endure; sustain; suffer

collocations
undergo [a procedure, an operation]
is undergoing [treatment, therapy, surgery] (for)
has undergone a major [change, breakup, move]
undergo (further) [training, testing, renovation, development]
has undergone (extensive) [training]
undergo (additional) [scrutiny, examination, screening]
undergo [starvation, deprivation, hardships]
foster
поощрять,
воспитывать, благоприятствовать
definition
to promote the growth or development of; further; encourage

synonyms
promote , encourage , cultivate, advance , nurture

collocations
foster a [child, dog]
[woman, family] who fosters [children, orphans]
foster the [creation, development, growth] of
foster and [promote, encourage, support]
foster a sense of [responsibility, pride]
is fostering (a sense of) resentment
foster [negative, destructive] thoughts
trigger
инициировать,
вызывать,
дать начало
definition
to initiate or precipitate; put in motion or move to act

synonyms
cause, generate, produce, prompt, provoke, activate, incite

collocations
trigger the [alarm]
triggers [asthma, allergies]
[can, may] trigger the [symptoms, disease]
triggered by [stress, poor diet]
triggered to [produce, release, send]
triggered the [development, creation, invention] of
trigger the [collapse, destruction] of the [company, organization, empire, government]
tangible
материальный,
ощутимый,
осязаемый
definition
that can be touched, definite; not vague; clear

synonyms
material, physical, substantial, touchable, concrete, visible, observable

collocations
tangible [goals, targets, objectives]
make a tangible [improvement, difference, contribution]
[have, calculate, sell] tangible assets
present tangible [evidence, proof]
[reach, set] a tangible goal
the goal [seems, looks] tangible
feasible
возможный,
осуществимый, выполнимый,
вероятный
definition
capable of being done, effected, or accomplished, probable; likely

synonyms
possible, doable, achievable, attainable, practicable, workable

collocations
it is (not) feasible to [have, use, provide]
it is (not) feasible for them to [have]
is (not) feasible for [many, some]
is not feasible for [investment, travel]
is not feasible at present
[is, seems, would be] perfectly feasible
it’s technically feasible, but

PREPOSITIONS

  1. success in
  2. threat to
  3. prospect of
  4. tension over
  5. regardless of
  6. paradox for 
  7. renege on
  8. belonging to
  9. option for
  10. opportunities for 
  11. approach to
  12. account for
  13. basis for
  14. contribute to 
  15. attend to

VOCABULARY TEST

MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS TRANSLATION

advance приоритет 
pursue возможный, осуществимый, выполнимый, вероятный
attend to инициировать, вызывать, дать начало 
asset способствовать; приближать, ускорять; продвигаться 
priority материальный, ощутимый, осязаемый
undergo преследовать, продолжать, заниматься; искать, добиваться 
foster обращать внимание; уделять внимание
trigger поощрять, воспитывать, благоприятствовать
tangible имущество; средства; активы; ценное качество, вклад
feasible подвергаться, испытывать, переносить 

MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS DEFINITION

advance to promote the growth or development of; further; encourage
pursue capable of being done, effected, or accomplished, probable; likely
attend to a useful or valuable quality, item
asset to move or go forward; proceed; to increase in quantity, value, price; to improve or make progress; to grow or rise in importance, status
priority status established in order of importance or urgency 
undergo
to be subjected to; experience; to endure; sustain; suffer
fosterpay attention to; take seriously; to deal with smb/ smth
triggerthat can be touched, definite; not vague; clear
tangibleto initiate or precipitate; put in motion or move to act
feasibleto follow in order to overtake; to strive to gain; seek to attain or accomplish 

MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS SYNONYMS

advance precedence
pursue material, physical, substantial, touchable, concrete, visible,
attend to follow, track, engage, participate
asset promote , encourage , cultivate, advance , nurture
priority cause, generate, produce, prompt, provoke, activate, incite
undergo belongings, holding, property, aid, benefit, resource, service
foster to experience; to endure; sustain; suffer
trigger move forward, proceed, go forward, continue, progress
tangible possible, doable, achievable, attainable, practicable, workable
feasible assist, take care of, look after

MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS COLLOCATIONS

advancechild/  development/ growth/  a sense of responsibility
pursueto provide/ for investment/ technically/ perfectly
attend tobusiness/ the needs/ demands/ interests
assetalarm/ produce/ development/ collapse/ destruction 
prioritywith caution/ your career/ through generations/ understanding/ negotiations
undergoa procedure/ an operation/ change/ training/ scrutiny
fostertreated as / considered as/ utmost/ highest
triggergoals/ targets/ improvement/ difference/ evidence
tangiblepublic/ private/ valuable/ allocate/ invest
feasiblea goal/ objective/  a policy/ a career

PREPOSITIONS

  1. success ___
  2. threat ___
  3. prospect ___
  4. tension ___
  5. regardless ___
  6. paradox ___
  7. renege ___
  8. belonging ___
  9. option ___
  10. opportunities ___
  11. approach ___
  12. account ___
  13. basis ___
  14. contribute ___ 
  15. attend ___

SET WEEK 3

FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS
resort to
прибегать,
обращаться
definition
to have recourse for use, help, or accomplishing something, often as a final available option or resource

synonyms

recourse, recur

collocations
to resort to warresort to [drastic, emergency] measures
resort to [violence, killing]
(without) resorting to dirty [tricks, play]
extension
расширение,
продолжение,
удлинение,
распространение
definition
an act or instance of extending, lengthening, stretching out, or enlarging the scope of something

synonyms
lengthening, enlargement, prolonging, augmentation, expansion, increase, protraction

collocations
a [loan, credit, payment, mortgage] extension
[asked, applied] for a [loan] extension
[an assignment, an essay, a project, a homework] extension
an extension of the deadline
an extension of six [weeks, months, days]
the [bank, government] has [granted, approved] an extension
vulnerable
уязвимый,
ранимый
definition
capable of being wounded or hurt physically or emotionally; open to or defenseless against criticism or moral attack; open to assault; difficult to defend

synonyms
unprotected, defenseless, exposed, susceptible, sensitive, liable, subject 

collocations
vulnerable [patients, residents, families, children]
vulnerable [groups, sections, areas, property]
are vulnerable to [floods, disasters, attacks]
have been left vulnerable by the [decision, storm]
found themselves in a vulnerable [position, situation]
have become [increasingly] vulnerable
amongst the most vulnerable areas
the most vulnerable in [society, the area]
substantial 
существенный,
значительный,
важный
definition
of a considerable size or value, having wealth or importance, sufficient and nourishing

synonyms
considerable, ample, abundant, plentiful, sizable, large-scale, consequential, important

collocations
a substantial [number, amount, quantity] (of)
has a substantial amount of [food, money, ammunition]
a substantial [decrease, fall, growth, rise] (in)
a substantial [decrease] in [interest, profits, price, value]
the [army, enemy, forces] suffered substantial losses
the [market, company, organization] reported substantial [profits, losses]
is substantial in terms of [size, number, impact]
is substantial [against, compared to]
benevolent
благотворительный, доброжелательный
definition
characterized by or expressing goodwill or kindly feelings; intended for benefits rather than profit

synonyms
generous, altruistic, kindly, charitable, beneficent, compassionate, sympathetic

collocations
a benevolent smile
gifts from benevolent alumnia
benevolent attitude
a benevolent institution
stymie
загнать в угол,
ставить в тупик, безвыходное положение
definition
to block or prevent from proceeding or going forward

synonyms

impede, obstruct, hamper, block

collocations
stymie growing protests
stymie access
stymie the career
combat
вести бой,
сражаться, бороться
definition
to fight or contend against;oppose vigorously

synonyms
oppose, resist, contend with, do battle with, counter

collocations
combat crime, problem, drug, pollution, inflation, terrorism, threat, unimployment, abuse, desease, effects, racism
capacity
вместимость,
мощность,
способность, объем
definition
the maximum amount or number that can be contained;volume; the power or ability of the mind; mental ability, ability to perform, yield, or withstand

synonyms
ability, capacity, skill, aptitude, facility, competence, faculty, capability, potential, inclination

collocations
a maximum capacity of [40,000] [people, guests]
the capacity is [limited, restricted] to [40,000]
the capacity has been [extended, boosted, increased] to
is full to capacity
is at full capacity
has the capacity to [provide, meet, produce, make]
[mental, emotional, cognitive] capacities
the [child’s, student’s] capacity to [learn, improve]
promote
способствовать, поощрять, продвигать, стимулировать
definition
encourage; to advance in rank or position; to aid in organizing 

synonyms
material, physical, substantial, touchable, concrete, visible, observable

collocations
promoted from [assistant, manager]
promoted to [manager, CEO]
promote (good) health (and wellbeing)
promote a [positive, healthy, better]
promote the [development, interests, growth, health] of
promote economic [growth, development] (in)promote [awareness, understanding, acceptance, openness]
promote [the event, a concert, his movie]
amplify
увеличивать, расширять; усиливать
definition
to make larger, greater, or stronger

synonyms
enlarge, extend, increase, intensify, raise, expand , magnify, inflate, enlarge, augment

collocations
amplify creativity, energy, positive attitudes, enrollment

PREPOSITIONS

  1. resort to
  2. in response to
  3. demands for 
  4. answer to 
  5. suffer from 
  6. relative to 
  7. owing to 
  8. benefit from 
  9. deal with 
  10. restrict to

VOCABULARY TEST

MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS TRANSLATION

resort toвести бой, сражаться, бороться
extensionувеличивать, расширять; усиливать
vulnerableспособствовать, поощрять, продвигать, стимулировать
substantial вместимость, мощность, способность, объем
benevolentрасширение, продолжение, удлинение, распространение
stymieобращаться за помощью к, прибегать к
combatзагнать в угол, ставить в тупик, безвыходное положение
capacityсущественный, значительный, важный
promoteблаготворительный, доброжелательный
amplifyуязвимый, ранимый

MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS DEFINITION

resort toof a considerable size or value, having wealth or importance, sufficient and nourishing
extensionto block or prevent from proceeding or going forward
vulnerableto make larger, greater, or stronger
substantial to have recourse for use, help, or accomplishing something, often as a final available option or resource
benevolentthe maximum amount or number that can be contained;volume; the power or ability of the mind; mental ability, ability to perform, yield, or withstand
stymieencourage; to advance in rank or position; to aid in organizing 
combatcapable of being wounded or hurt physically or emotionally; open to or defenseless against criticism or moral attack; open to assault; difficult to defend
capacityto fight or contend against; oppose vigorously
promotean act or instance of extending, lengthening, stretching out, or enlarging the scope of something
amplifycharacterized by or expressing goodwill or kindly feelings; intended for benefits rather than profit

MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS SYNONYMS

resort toimpede, obstruct, hamper, block
extensionconsiderable, ample, abundant, plentiful, sizable, large-scale, consequential, important
vulnerableability, capacity, skill, aptitude, facility, competence, faculty, capability, potential, inclination
substantial enlarge, extend, increase, intensify, raise, expand , magnify, inflate, enlarge, augment
benevolentlengthening, enlargement, prolonging, augmentation, expansion, increase, protraction
stymiematerial, physical, substantial, touchable, concrete, visible, observable
combatoppose, resist, contend with, do battle with, counter
capacityrecourse, recur
promotegenerous, altruistic, kindly, charitable, beneficent, compassionate, sympathetic
amplifyunprotected, defenseless, exposed, susceptible, sensitive, liable

MATCH THE WORD WITH ITS COLLOCATIONS

resort topatients/ groups/  to disasters/ position/ areas
extensionprotests/ access/ the career
vulnerablesmile/ alumni/ attitude/ institution
substantial from assistant/ to CEO/ wellbeing/ the development/ economic development/ awareness/ understanding
benevolentmortgage/ apply for/ a project/ of the deadline/ of six weeks
stymielimited/ restricted/ mental/ emotional/ to learn/ improve
combatcreativity/ energy/ positive attitudes/ enrollment
capacitycrime/ problem/ pollution/ inflation/ terrorism/ unimployment 
promoteto measures/ to violence/ to dirty tricks
amplifyamount/  quantity/ decrease/ profits/ impact/ losses

PREPOSITIONS

  1. resort ___
  2. ___ response ___
  3. demands ___ 
  4. answer ___ 
  5. suffer ___ 
  6. relative ___ 
  7. owing ___ 
  8. benefit ___ 
  9. deal ___
  10. restrict ___

GRAMMAR

In a world that is tearing itself apart, the European Union should make trust in the European project a top strategic priority.

Despite a succession of severe convulsions, European integration has recently undergone a historic acceleration.

Since the COVID-19 pandemic hit Europe two and a half years ago, practically all of the EU’s decisions have sought to strengthen member states’ political integration.

If the country meets the bloc’s entry requirements, there is no reason why it should not be admitted.

Promises of eventual membership and the long negotiations that precede it will harm the Union if they generate frustration among candidate countries’ governments and citizens.

Without the EU’s 2004 enlargement to Eastern Europe, the bloc would not be the commercial and regulatory power it is today.

In the 1930’s, Germany and Japan resorted to forcible regional integration, not economic nationalism, in response to economic crisis.

By contrast, in today’s crisis, the largest members of the European Union, the best model and greatest hope for benign regionalism, have turned their backs on integration.

Suddenly, in the face of the economic crisis, these problems have become major sources of political instability.

But today, the European Union is stymied by having squandered the chance to build stronger institutions when times were better and tempers less strained.

The EU is suffering from a number of problems that have been widely discussed for many years, but never seemed to be that urgent.

Instead, the large states are now promoting informal groupings to look for worldwide solutions.

The clash of two visions of Europe is eroding the political stability of an area that once represented the best model and greatest hope for benign regionalism.

Moreover, the whole idea of Keynesian demand stimulus was developed, again in the 1930’s, in the context of self-contained national economies.

The fiscal problem could be dealt with by issuing generally guaranteed European bonds, which might be a temporary measure, restricted to the financial emergency. From the perspective of Berlin or Paris, there should be no systematic Europeanization.

But the more the crisis affects them, the more they think largely in national terms.

Работает на WordPress & Автор темы: Anders Norén