ESI

Автор: Татьяна Яблокова

WORDS FOR REPORT

set 1

conduct a study
total participants
focus group participants
distinct groups
response

set 2

aftermath
attitude
a sharp partisan divide/ a partisan agreement on 
four-in-ten / seven-in-ten
half as many / twice as many 
the balance of opinion
share the view / express negative views / harbour doubts
large majorities of
about a quarter or fewer
strongly or somewhat oppose

set 3

minor fluctuations
minority
increase __% percentage points
increase dramatically 
go up substantially
at a historic high of __ %
skyrocket
peak at __% in 20….
the same pattern holds true
factor driving attitude

set 4

dissatisfaction with
hold the view 
substantial minorities/ large majorities 
In comparison, 
very different public moods across
not so downcast 
Similarly, 
key finding/ the major findings
significant change
long-running divisions 

set 5

grow at a modest pace
the turnout rates
account for 
to be projected to reach
respectively
a higher share of
considerably less likely 
the median age 

PREPOSITIONS

set 1

set 2

set 3

set 4

set 5

set 6

set 7

set 8

set 9

set 10

GLOSSARY

A

accession agreement — an agreement concluded between the Union and states that are not member states, usually, in their terms, ‘with a view to membership

accommodate — to adapt, adjust

acquire — come into possession or ownership; obtain

admission — the process or fact of entering or being allowed to enter an organization

alter — to make different, modify

approve amendment — to confirm formally, accept an alteration of or addition to a bill, constitution

associate members — as a member of an organization having only partial rights and privileges or subordinate status

availability — easily obtainable and ready for use

B

bilateral trade — the exchange of goods between two nations promoting trade and investment

C

cease — to stop or discontinue

cohesiveness — the quality of being structured or organized in a unified way, with close or strong internal connections between people, ideas, or other elements

commodities — an article of trade or commerce, esp. a product that can be bought or sold

common currency — money system for more than one country

common market — a formal agreement where a group is formed amongst several countries that adopt a common external tariff

compete — the economic scenario in which enterprises put effort to be leaders in their industry and increase their market share

complete economic integration — the point of integration at which economic countries involved have no control of economic policy, full monetary union, and complete harmonization of fiscal policy

comprise — to include or contain

conceptual comprehension — understanding the connection of concepts, operations, and relations

counterbalance — have an equal but opposite effect on something in a positive way

customs procedures — the set of managements and operations that are carried out related to a specific customs destination

customs union — groups of countries that apply one common system of procedures, rules and tariffs for all or almost all their imports, exports and transiting goods

D

domestic policy — a type of public policy overseeing administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a state’s borders

draft — to compose, make a blueprint, draw up an outline of a document/ bill/ treaty/ agreement

E

economic bloc — a set of countries which engage in international trade together, and are usually related through a free trade agreement or other association

economic union — an agreement between two or more nations to allow goods, services, money and workers to move over borders freely

emerge — become known or apparent

employment — a relationship between two parties regulating the provision of paid labour services

encroach — to trespass upon the property, domain, or rights of another, esp. stealthily or by gradual advances

ensure — to guarantee; to make secure or safe

entity — a unit considered as distinct, independent, or self-contained

equitably share — fair and reasonable in a way that gives equal treatment or ownership to everyone

executive body — the branch of an institution charged with the execution and enforcement of laws, policies and the administration of an institution affairs

F

fiscal policies — the use of government spending and tax policies to influence economic conditions, especially macroeconomic conditions

food safety standards — the regulatory requirements related to food safety, designed to protect consumers from the risk of illness caused by eating unsafe foods

free trade agreement — a pact between two or more nations to reduce barriers to imports and exports among them

free trade area — a region in which a group of countries has signed a free trade agreement and maintain little or no barriers to trade in the form of tariffs or quotas between each other

full-fledged members — of full rank or standing; completely developed or qualified member

full-time members — working or operating for the entire time appropriate to an activity of an organization

G

governance — the act of exercising authority

gross domestic product (GDP) — the total monetary or market value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period

H

I

implement — to put into effect according to or by means of a definite plan or procedure

impose — to apply by authority; force the acceptance of

incorporate — to introduce (something) as a basic part

influx — an arrival of a large number of people or things at the same time

infringement — an act of interfering with someone’s rights

intellectual property rights — the legal rights given to the inventor or creator to protect his invention or creation for a certain period of time

interconnect — be interwoven or linked closely together

interdependence — a reciprocal relation between interdependent entities

international policy — foreign policy pursues general objectives that guide the activities and relationships of one state in its interactions with other states

intra-regional — occurring between, or existing between two or more regions

J

K

L

M

market access — the ability of a company or country to sell goods and services across borders

market expansion — a growth strategy which involves offering your existing product/service to a new market

merchandise trade — goods which add or subtract from the stock of material resources of a country by entering (imports) or leaving (exports) its economic territory

N

non state actors — organizations and/or individuals not directed or funded by any government

O

objective — a purpose; aim; goal

oversee — to supervise; manage

P

participation — the act of becoming involved in the activities of a group

part-time privileges — a right or advantage enjoyed on a part-time basis

pass legislation — to bring in a new law by voting in parliament or by decree

per capita income — a measure of the amount of money earned per person in a nation or geographic region

pertain — to have reference or relation to; relate

policy-making — the activity of deciding on new policies, especially by a government or political party

political commitment — the persevering act of politicians which ensures that they are achieving results

potential investors — any person (an individual, company, business or organisation) with whom, within the relevant period, the company or any group company is in negotiations for such person to invest in any target company

preferential trading area (PTA) — a trading bloc that gives preferential access to certain products from certain countries

preferential treatment — any concession or privilege granted to the party

prevention — effectual hindrance, obstacle, or impediment

priority — the state or quality of being earlier in time, occurrence, etc. the right to precede others in order, rank, privilege, etc.; precedence

provision — a clause in a legal instrument, a law, etc., providing for a particular matter

purchasing power — the amount of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency

Q

R

ratify — to confirm by expressing consent, approval, or formal sanction

reduction — the act of making something smaller in size, amount, number

regional economic integration — a process in which two or more countries agree to eliminate economic barriers, with the end goal of enhancing productivity and achieving greater economic interdependence

regulatory practices — processes and tools to help improve the quality and effectiveness of measure, actions and activities

representative body — a body or persons (an association, trade union, works council) chosen to make decisions or craft the policy on behalf of  a larger group

restriction — a limiting condition or measure, especially a legal one

retain — to keep possession of; to continue to use, practice, have, hold in place

rotate — to replace (a person, troops, etc.) by another or others, usually according to a schedule or plan

S

security concerns — anxiety or worry related to all the measures that are taken to protect and safe a place, people, institutions, property or measures taken as a precaution against theft or espionage or sabotage etc.

signatory — the signer, or one of the signers, of a document

social welfare policies — aim to protect citizens who may be considered poor, unemployed, unhealthy, or marginalized from their community

sovereignty — the right to have absolute and unlimited power, either legal or political, within the territory of a state

stance — a mental or emotional position adopted with respect to something

standards harmonization — technical specifications meeting the essential requirements of the EU directives

submit — to present for approval or consideration

subsidiarity — the principle of devolving decisions to the lowest practical level

suspend — to remove from membership in or prevent from attending, usually for a limited time, a job, school, club, etc., esp. as a punishment

sustainable — capable of being supported or upheld; pertaining to a system that maintains its own viability by using techniques that allow for continual reuse; using methods that do not cause long-term harm to the environment

T

term — condition

terminate — to bring to an end, dismiss

U

uphold — to maintain, affirm, or defend against opposition or challenge

V

violation — a breaking of a law

W

withdraw — to separate formally from membership in a state, union, or other political entity

X

Y

Z

FOCUS WORDS

SET 1

advanceспособствовать; приближать, ускорять; продвигаться
pursueпреследовать, продолжать, заниматься; искать, добиваться
attend toобращать внимание; уделять внимание
assetимущество; средства; активы; ценное качество, вклад
priorityприоритет
undergoподвергаться, испытывать, переносить
fosterпоощрять, воспитывать, благоприятствовать
triggerинициировать, вызывать, дать начало
tangibleматериальный, ощутимый, осязаемый
feasibleвозможный, осуществимый, выполнимый, вероятный

PREPOSITIONS

  1. success in
  2. threat to
  3. prospect of
  4. tension over
  5. regardless of
  6. paradox for 
  7. renege on
  8. belonging to
  9. option for
  10. opportunities for 
  11. approach to
  12. account for
  13. basis for
  14. contribute to 
  15. attend to
FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS

SET 2

resort toобращаться за помощью к, прибегать к
extensionрасширение, продолжение, удлинение, распространение
vulnerableуязвимый, ранимый
substantial существенный, значительный, важный
benevolentблаготворительный, доброжелательный
stymieзагнать в угол, ставить в тупик, безвыходное положение
combatвести бой, сражаться, бороться
capacityвместимость, мощность, способность, объем
promoteспособствовать, поощрять, продвигать, стимулировать
amplifyувеличивать, расширять; усиливать

PREPOSITIONS

  1. resort to
  2. in response to
  3. demands for 
  4. answer to 
  5. suffer from 
  6. relative to 
  7. owing to 
  8. benefit from 
  9. deal with 
  10. restrict to
FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS
SET 3
deterудерживать, останавливать
apparentlyпо-видимому, очевидно, вероятно
unprecedentedбеспрецедентный
incentiveстимул, побуждение
implicationсмысл, значение, подтекст
exposeподвергать, показывать
embraceвключать, заключать в себе, охватывать
resilienceстойкость, жизнеспособность
robustкрепкий, сильный, устойчивый
shiftменять, изменять, перемещать

PREPOSITIONS

  1. a reduction in
  2. central to
  3. implication for 
  4. reaction to 
  5. expose to
  6. shelter from
  7. at any rate
  8. revert to
  9. exemplify by
  10. response to 
  11. at a pace
  12. critical for
  13. credited with 
  14. accuse of
  15. at the level
FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS
SET 4
mitigateсмягчать, уменьшать
enhanceповышать, усиливать, увеличивать
disruptразрушать, срывать, разрывать
restrictограничивать, держать в определённых пределах; сводить к 
scrutinyизучение, исследование, внимательный осмотр
diversifyразнообразить, варьировать
emergenceпоявление, возникновение
undermineподрывать, разрушать
erodeразрушать, разъедать, размывать
boostфорсировать, повышать, стимулировать, ускорять

PREPOSITIONS

  1. to some extent
  2. depend on 
  3. support for 
  4. rely on
  5. with regard to
  6. access to
  7. incentive for
  8. emphasis on 
  9. increase in
  10. strain on 
FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS
SET 5
anticipateожидать, предвосхищать, предчувствовать
concessionуступка
postponeоткладывать, отсрочивать
determine определять, устанавливать
rejectотвергать, отклонять
crucialрешающий, ключевой, критический
complianceсогласие, соблюдение, соответствие
abandon отказываться от, оставлять, покидать
reluctant вынужденный, неохотный
enforcement приведение в исполнение

PREPOSITIONS

  1. obstacle to 
  2. consequences for
  3. in particular
  4. change for the better
  5. reasons for
  6. benefits of
  7. relate to 
  8. acceptable to
  9. focused on
  10. compliance with
  11. disregard for
  12. succeed in
  13. invest in 
  14. sanctions for
  15. on the grounds
FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS
SET 6
eventually в конечном счете
enduring прочный, продолжительный
deriveполучать, происходить, вытекать
distinctive отличительный, особый, характерный
conformсоответствовать, подчиняться
overlapping перекрывающий(ся); частично совпадающий
superimpose накладывать, впечатывать
convergeсходиться в одной точке, сосредоточиваться
envisage предусматривать, предвидеть, намечать
secure гарантировать, укреплять, обеспечивать (безопасность)

PREPOSITIONS

  1. emerge from 
  2. lead to
  3. subordination to 
  4. derive from 
  5. date from 
  6. conform to
  7. worthy of
  8. motive for
  9. accompanied by 
  10. problems for
  11. model on
  12. respect for
  13. interference in
  14. integrate into
  15. squabble over
FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS
SET 7
cloutвлияние, авторитет, мощь, вес
profound глубокий, основательный, фундаментальный
impact воздействие, влияние
bolsterподдерживать, укреплять
insulateотделять, обособлять, изолировать
pivotal основной, центральный, кардинальный
facilitateсодействовать, способствовать, облегчать, продвигать
evolveразвивать, развертывать
stance позиция, установка
reinforceукреплять, усиливать, подкреплять

PREPOSITIONS

  1. grapple with 
  2. under pressure
  3. an impact on
  4. faced with
  5. insulated against 
  6. respond to
  7. at scale
  8. praise for
  9. discriminate against 
  10. integral to
  11. give rise to 
  12. at risk
  13. commitment to
  14. vision for 
  15. stance on
FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS
SET 8
upcomingнаступающий, предстоящий
underlying основной, лежащий в основе, подразумеваемый, скрытый
precursor предшественник, предвестник
intrusive навязчивый, назойливый
fomentразжигать, раздувать, подстрекать
framework рамки, основа, структура, каркас
sufficient достаточный
impedimentпрепятствие, помеха, задержка
conceiveпостигать, понимать, представлять себе, задумывать
predicateутверждать; заявлять, основывать

PREPOSITIONS

  1. on the agenda
  2. accounts for
  3. stem from
  4. subject to 
  5. precursor for
  6. equivalent of
  7. aim at
  8. on the contrary
  9. support for
  10. for these reasons
  11. to one’s credit
  12. owing to
  13. impediments to
  14. forum for
  15. predicate upon
FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS
SET 9
decayослабление, упадок, распад
powerhouseцентр власти, влияния
counterweight противовес
frustration разочарование, расстройство, срыв, крушение
substantiveзначительный, существенный
tensionsнапряженные отношения; трения; конфликт
stalled застойный, тупиковый
loomingнадвигаться, принимать угрожающие размеры
meddling вмешательство 
controversial спорный, дискуссионный

PREPOSITIONS

  1. counterweight to 
  2. barriers to 
  3. in exchange for
  4. put on trial
  5. access to
  6. resort to
  7. meddling with/ in
  8. similar to
  9. different from 
  10. on the rise
FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS
SET 10
reside находиться, принадлежать
distinct отдельный, особый, отчетливый, определенный
subject toподвергаться, зависеть от
abundance множество, избыток
depletion истощение, опустошение
impedeпрепятствовать, мешать, затруднять, задерживать
susceptible восприимчивый, поддающийся, допускающий
allocate распределять, назначать, отчислить
capacityмощность, способность, возможность, объем
constrainedограниченный, сдержанный

PREPOSITIONS

  1. refer to  
  2. defined by
  3. derive from
  4. range from
  5. dependent on 
  6. demand for
  7. burden on
  8. allocate to
  9. subject to 
  10. vital to
  11. susceptible to 
  12. in the long-run
  13. constrained to
  14. engage in 
  15. in an effort 
FLASHCARDS
SYNONYMS

VOCABULARY NOTES 1
advance
способствовать; приближать,
ускорять; продвигаться
definition
to move or go forward; proceed; to increase in quantity, value, price; to improve or make progress; to grow or rise in importance, status

synonyms
move forward, proceed, go forward, continue, progress

collocations
advance [with caution, carefully, slowly]
advance in [your career, in the company]
advance through [time, the years, generations]
advance [humanity, society, the nation, your career][failed, efforts] to advance (the) [negotiations, talks]
advance the [understanding, development, cause] of
pursue
преследовать,
продолжать,
заниматься;
искать, добиваться
definition
to follow in order to overtake; to strive to gain; seek to attain or accomplish

synonyms
follow, track, engage, participate

collocations
to pursue a goal
to pursue an aim/objective
to pursue a policy 
to pursue a career
attend to
обращать внимание; 
уделять внимание
definition
pay attention to; take seriously; to deal with somebody/something

synonyms
assist, take care of, look after

collocations
attend to [business, the matter at hand]
(have) [business] to attend 
to attend to the needs
asset
имущество; средства; активы; ценное качество, вклад
definition
a useful or valuable quality, item

synonyms
belongings, holding, property, aid, benefit, resource, service

collocations
[public, private] assets
[digital, capital, real, total, net] assets
is a [liquid, fixed, variable] asset
is [an important, an essential, a valuable] asset (to)
an asset of the [public, people, company]
[allocate, invest, protect, insure, liquidate, sell off] your assets
has [a number, many] assets
priority
приоритет
definition
status established in order of importance or urgency 

synonyms
precedence

collocations
should be treated as a priority
should be considered a priority
your [number one, top] priority
it is your [number one] priority to [go, pick up, find, complete] this [project, assignment, task]
is your [number one] priority
make it your [number one] priority
it is a priority to [ensure, provide, get]
is of the [utmost, highest] priority
has never been a priority
undergo
подвергаться,
испытывать,
переносить
definition
to be subjected to; experience; pass through, to endure;
sustain; suffer

synonyms
to experience; to endure; sustain; suffer

collocations
undergo [a procedure, an operation]
is undergoing [treatment, therapy, surgery] (for)
has undergone a major [change, breakup, move]
undergo (further) [training, testing, renovation, development]
has undergone (extensive) [training]
undergo (additional) [scrutiny, examination, screening]
undergo [starvation, deprivation, hardships]
foster
поощрять,
воспитывать, благоприятствовать
definition
to promote the growth or development of; further; encourage

synonyms
promote , encourage , cultivate, advance , nurture

collocations
foster a [child, dog]
[woman, family] who fosters [children, orphans]
foster the [creation, development, growth] of
foster and [promote, encourage, support]
foster a sense of [responsibility, pride]
is fostering (a sense of) resentment
foster [negative, destructive] thoughts
trigger
инициировать,
вызывать,
дать начало
definition
to initiate or precipitate; put in motion or move to act

synonyms
cause, generate, produce, prompt, provoke, activate, incite

collocations
trigger the [alarm]
triggers [asthma, allergies]
[can, may] trigger the [symptoms, disease]
triggered by [stress, poor diet]
triggered to [produce, release, send]
triggered the [development, creation, invention] of
trigger the [collapse, destruction] of the [company, organization, empire, government]
tangible
материальный,
ощутимый,
осязаемый
definition
that can be touched, definite; not vague; clear

synonyms
material, physical, substantial, touchable, concrete, visible, observable

collocations
tangible [goals, targets, objectives]
make a tangible [improvement, difference, contribution]
[have, calculate, sell] tangible assets
present tangible [evidence, proof]
[reach, set] a tangible goal
the goal [seems, looks] tangible
feasible
возможный,
осуществимый, выполнимый,
вероятный
definition
capable of being done, effected, or accomplished, probable; likely

synonyms
possible, doable, achievable, attainable, practicable, workable

collocations
it is (not) feasible to [have, use, provide]
it is (not) feasible for them to [have]
is (not) feasible for [many, some]
is not feasible for [investment, travel]
is not feasible at present
[is, seems, would be] perfectly feasible
it’s technically feasible, but
VOCABULARY NOTES 2
resort to
прибегать,
обращаться
definition
to have recourse for use, help, or accomplishing something, often as a final available option or resource

synonyms

recourse, recur

collocations
to resort to warresort to [drastic, emergency] measures
resort to [violence, killing]
(without) resorting to dirty [tricks, play]
extension
расширение,
продолжение,
удлинение,
распространение
definition
an act or instance of extending, lengthening, stretching out, or enlarging the scope of something

synonyms
lengthening, enlargement, prolonging, augmentation, expansion, increase, protraction

collocations
a [loan, credit, payment, mortgage] extension
[asked, applied] for a [loan] extension
[an assignment, an essay, a project, a homework] extension
an extension of the deadline
an extension of six [weeks, months, days]
the [bank, government] has [granted, approved] an extension
vulnerable
уязвимый,
ранимый
definition
capable of being wounded or hurt physically or emotionally; open to or defenseless against criticism or moral attack; open to assault; difficult to defend

synonyms
unprotected, defenseless, exposed, susceptible, sensitive, liable, subject 

collocations
vulnerable [patients, residents, families, children]
vulnerable [groups, sections, areas, property]
are vulnerable to [floods, disasters, attacks]
have been left vulnerable by the [decision, storm]
found themselves in a vulnerable [position, situation]
have become [increasingly] vulnerable
amongst the most vulnerable areas
the most vulnerable in [society, the area]
substantial 
существенный,
значительный,
важный
definition
of a considerable size or value, having wealth or importance, sufficient and nourishing

synonyms
considerable, ample, abundant, plentiful, sizable, large-scale, consequential, important

collocations
a substantial [number, amount, quantity] (of)
has a substantial amount of [food, money, ammunition]
a substantial [decrease, fall, growth, rise] (in)
a substantial [decrease] in [interest, profits, price, value]
the [army, enemy, forces] suffered substantial losses
the [market, company, organization] reported substantial [profits, losses]
is substantial in terms of [size, number, impact]
is substantial [against, compared to]
benevolent
благотворительный, доброжелательный
definition
characterized by or expressing goodwill or kindly feelings; intended for benefits rather than profit

synonyms
generous, altruistic, kindly, charitable, beneficent, compassionate, sympathetic

collocations
a benevolent smile
gifts from benevolent alumnia
benevolent attitude
a benevolent institution
stymie
загнать в угол,
ставить в тупик, безвыходное положение
definition
to block or prevent from proceeding or going forward

synonyms

impede, obstruct, hamper, block

collocations
stymie growing protests
stymie access
stymie the career
combat
вести бой,
сражаться, бороться
definition
to fight or contend against;oppose vigorously

synonyms
oppose, resist, contend with, do battle with, counter

collocations
combat crime, problem, drug, pollution, inflation, terrorism, threat, unimployment, abuse, desease, effects, racism
capacity
вместимость,
мощность,
способность, объем
definition
the maximum amount or number that can be contained;volume; the power or ability of the mind; mental ability, ability to perform, yield, or withstand

synonyms
ability, capacity, skill, aptitude, facility, competence, faculty, capability, potential, inclination

collocations
a maximum capacity of [40,000] [people, guests]
the capacity is [limited, restricted] to [40,000]
the capacity has been [extended, boosted, increased] to
is full to capacity
is at full capacity
has the capacity to [provide, meet, produce, make]
[mental, emotional, cognitive] capacities
the [child’s, student’s] capacity to [learn, improve]
promote
способствовать, поощрять, продвигать, стимулировать
definition
encourage; to advance in rank or position; to aid in organizing 

synonyms
material, physical, substantial, touchable, concrete, visible, observable

collocations
promoted from [assistant, manager]
promoted to [manager, CEO]
promote (good) health (and wellbeing)
promote a [positive, healthy, better]
promote the [development, interests, growth, health] of
promote economic [growth, development] (in)promote [awareness, understanding, acceptance, openness]
promote [the event, a concert, his movie]
amplify
увеличивать, расширять; усиливать
definition
to make larger, greater, or stronger

synonyms
enlarge, extend, increase, intensify, raise, expand , magnify, inflate, enlarge, augment

collocations
amplify creativity, energy, positive attitudes, enrollment
VOCABULARY NOTES 3
deter
удерживать, останавливать
definition
to discourage or restrain from acting or proceeding

synonyms
hinder, hamper, impede, inhibit, curb, prevent, forestall

collocations
(to) deter [trespassers, thieves, burglars]
(to) deter [speeding, theft, vandalism]
apparently
по-видимому, очевидно,
вероятно
definition
as far as can be known or supposed; obviously; clearly

synonyms
seemingly, evidently, allegedly, supposedly, presumably 

collocations
apparently, it is [going, supposed] to [rain, storm, snow] 
was apparently an [accident, suicide, murder]
apparently it was an [accident]
apparently, we’re not [allowed, going, supposed] to
unprecedented
беспрецедентный
definition
without previous instance; never before known/ experienced

synonyms 
uncommon, unique , unusual, unexampled, unparalleled

collocations
an unprecedented decision
an unprecedented [display, performance] (of)
an unprecedented [social, sporting, political] event
an unprecedented [rise, fall, growth, increase, decrease] (in)
an unprecedented [level, extent, degree] of [CO2, lead, unemployment]
unprecedented [personal, economic, financial] growth
unprecedented in [modern, human, political] terms
incentive
стимул, побуждение
definition      
a positive motivational influence; an additional payment (or other remuneration) to employees as a means of increasing output

synonyms
motivation, motive, stimulus

collocations
a [financial, cash, tax] incentive
a [little, strong] incentive (to)[tax]
incentives for [creating, employing, reducing]
an incentive to [make, help, get, keep]
offer their [employees, workers]
an incentive (to)an investment incentive
incentives for [people, companies, citizens]
incentives and rewards
implication
смысл,
значение,
подтекст
definition          
inferred, deduced or entailed 

synonyms
consequence, result, ramification, outcome, repercussions, effects

collocations
political implications
to consider the implications of 
the implications of the theory
expose
подвергать, показывать
definition
to lay open to danger, attack, or harm; to present to view;exhibit

synonyms
uncover, reveal, disclose; display, exhibit 

collocations
expose your [skin, face, eyes] to the sun
expose to [high, low, freezing] temperatures
the [politician, student, teacher] was exposed to [ridicule, criticism]
exposed to [the elements, bad language]
embrace
включать,
заключать в себе, охватывать
definition
to accept or adopt willingly; to include or contain

synonyms
adopt, follow, support, include, enclose, encompass 

collocations
embrace the [idea, thought, concept, words, philosophy] of
embrace [change, diversity]
embrace [technology, the modern world, the new way of life, their culture]
resilience
стойкость, жизнеспособность
definition
the ability of a person to adjust to or recover readily from illness, adversity, major life changes; the ability of a system or organization to respond to or recover readily from a crisis, disruptive process

synonyms
flexibility, strength, stamina, adaptability

collocations
[tough, strong, weak, no, little] resilience
[extreme, great, remarkable] resiliencethe
resilience of [workers, consumers, the economy, a nation]
resilience to [trauma, setbacks, attacks, shocks]
[build up, develop, improve, boost] resilience
resilience to [high temperatures, extreme pressure]
robust
крепкий,
сильный, устойчивый
definition
strong and healthy; hardy; vigorous

synonyms
sturdy, tough, dynamic, powerful 

collocations

a robust [method, framework]
a robust approach towardsa
robust [system, program, version]
a robust economy
robust [growth, expansion, health]
shift
менять,
изменять, перемещать
definition
to put aside/ replace; change or exchange, to transfer from one place, position, person, etc., to another 

synonyms

modify, vary, adjust, alter 

collocations

shift your [position, opinion] on
shift sides to 
shift your [thinking, perspective, ideas]
shifting towards [greater, higher, better] [communism, the left]
shift away from the [noise, flash]
shift the [burden, blame, responsibility, burden, emphasis]
VOCABULARY NOTES 4
mitigate
смягчать, уменьшать
definition
to lessen in force or intensity; make less severe

synonyms
alleviate, relieve, diminish, decrease, reduce

collocations
to mitigate punishment 
to mitigate penalty 
to mitigate risks 
to mitigate losses 
to mitigate competition 
to mitigate the effect
to mitigate the loss 
enhance
повышать, усиливать, увеличивать
definition
to increase the value, attractiveness, or quality of;improve

synonyms
intensify,boost, magnify, amplify, strengthen

collocations
enhance the [quality, performance] of
enhance the [understanding, awareness] of
enhance the security of the [building, country, school]
enhance the [taste, flavor, appeal] of
enhance communication [between, within, among]
disrupt
разрушать, срывать, разрывать
definition
to cause disorder or turmoil in, to interrupt the normal operation of

synonyms
interfere with, intrude on, obstruct, meddle, breach

collocations
    
disrupt the [meeting, conversation, peace, proceedings]    
disrupt the [progress, growth, development] of    
disrupted the lives of [millions, the residents]
restrict
ограничивать, держать в определённых пределах; сводить к 
definition
to keep within limits, as of space, action, amount

synonyms
restrain , curb, confine, limit, contain

collocations
restrict [access, entry, imports] to [the web, the internet, websites, sites]
[access] was restricted to [members, professionals, ex-students]
[access] was restricted by [management, IT, the organizers]
restrict movement
scrutiny
изучение, исследование, внимательный осмотр
definition
a searching and careful examination or investigation

synonyms
inspection, check, audit, survey, observation, probe 

collocations

under the [government’s, public’s, regulator’s, interviewer’s, panel’s] scrutiny
under the (close) scrutiny of the [government]
[examine, review, inspect] under formal scrutiny
[actions, movements, dealings] are under (close) scrutiny
diversify
разнообразить, варьировать
definition
to give or increase variety, to expand (a business or product line) by manufacturing a larger variety of different products 

synonyms
vary, expand, broaden, branch out, change, stretch, diverge

collocations
to diversify the assortment 
to diversify the economy 
to diversify risks 
to diversify production
to diversify the base 
emergence
появление, возникновение
definition
the appearance of new properties or species in the course of development or evolution

synonyms
appearance, rise, inception, birth, beginning, start 

collocations

emergence of a tendencyemergence from a recession emergence of many new nations
undermine
подрывать, разрушать
definition
to weaken or destroy by degrees, to attack by indirect, secret, or hidden means

synonyms
sabotage, subvert, overthrow, damage, threaten, destroy, ruin, compromise  

collocations
undermine [authority, position, confidence, health]          
undermine [efforts, hard work, the progress made]          
undermine the [structure, foundations, formation]
erode
разрушать, разъедать, размывать
definition
to cause to be destroyed by slowly using up or disintegrating, to disappear gradually

synonyms
crumble, decay, corrode, waste, ravage, spoil

collocations

erode differences 
erode enemy forces 
erode power
erode public support
erode sovereignty 
erode stability
boost
форсировать, повышать, стимулировать, ускорять
definition
to increase; raise

synonyms

aid, promote, lift, expand, enlarge, intensify, escalate

collocations
to boost prices, economy, salaries, morale 
VOCABULARY NOTES 5
anticipate
ожидать,
предвосхищать, предчувствовать,
опасаться
definition
to realize or feel beforehand; foresee

synonyms
expect, predict 

collocations
to anticipate success [happy solution, favourable decision]
to anticipate a failure [a refusal, a disaster] 
concession
уступка
definition
the act of yielding, as a right, a privilege, or a point or fact in an argument

synonyms
negotiation, compromise, granting, yielding

collocations
won [some, important, several] concessions
[refuses, unwilling, not willing] to make any concessions
[demand, seek] further concessions
postpone
откладывать,
отсрочивать
definition
to put (something) off to a later time

synonyms
delay, put off, defer, suspend 

collocations
postpone [the meeting, the match, your vacation, his decision]
postponed due to [illness, vacations, the weather]
determine 
определять,
устанавливать
definition
to conclude or figure out, to settle, resolve, or decide 

synonyms
define, decide, outline

collocations
to determine a position,
to determine a dispute,
determine the quantity  
reject
отвергать,
отклонять
definition
to refuse to have, take, use, recognize; to refuse to accept or admit

synonyms
refuse, decline

collocations
to reject smb.’s demand 
to reject an idea, an offer 
crucial
решающий,
ключевой,
критический
definition
of highest, greatest, or most critical importance

synonyms
critical, key, vital, pivotal, essential, fundamental, decisive

collocations
it is crucial that you [don’t forget, go, remember]
is crucial for [success, understanding]
was crucial in [preparing, determining, preparing]
…played a crucial role in
[proved, turned out] to be crucial
compliance
согласие
definition
conformity; accordance

synonyms
obedience, observance, submission

collocations
[total, complete, full] compliance
[demands, ensures, requires] compliance (with)[regulatory, corporate, environmental] compliance
[achieve, determine] compliance (through)
in [full] compliance with the [rules]
compliance with the [rules, plan, standards, regulations]
abandon 
отказываться от, оставлять,
покидать 
definition
to leave completely and finally; to give up; withdraw from

synonyms
cast aside, depart, surrender, cancel 

collocations
to abandon a right
to abandon a theory 
to abandon hope
reluctant  
вынужденный,
неохотный
definition
unwilling; not inclined to do something, marked by hesitation 

synonyms
hesitant, disinclined, unenthusiastic, opposed, adverse, uncertain 

collocations
reluctant [members, supporters, students, readers] (of)
received the reluctant [support, acceptance, approval] of
was reluctant to [go, leave, take, accept, do, offer]
enforcement 
приведение в исполнение
definition
the act of enforcing; ensuring observance of or obedience to

synonyms
implementation, administering, execution, fulfilling, forcing

collocations

[law, regulations, security, police] enforcement
[local, state, national] law enforcement
[full, total, complete, strict, effective] enforcement of the law
the enforcement of [sanctions, penalties, bans]
VOCABULARY NOTES 6
eventually 
в конечном счете
definition
at the very end; finally 

synonyms
finally; ultimately

collocations
(it) eventually [led to, resulted in, caused]
was eventually [elected, chosen, wounded]
eventually [won, stopped, crashed]
enduring 
прочный,
продолжительный
definition
lasting; permanent

synonyms
long-standing, constant, consistent, ongoing 

collocations
enduring [freedom, prosperity, peace]
the enduring [legacy, vision, power] of
derive
получать,
происходить,
вытекать
definition
to receive or obtain from a source or origin; produce

synonyms
stem from, originate in, arise from

collocations
derive [benefit, satisfaction, pleasure] (from)
derives its meaning from [Greek, the context, your tone]
derive [conclusions, results] (from, about)
distinctive 
отличительный,
особый,
характерный
definition
serving to distinguish; characteristic

synonyms
typical, particular, unique, individual, special, different

collocations
distinctive in [quality, appearance, shape]
a distinctive [smell, flavor, taste]         
distinctive features/ characteristics of
conform
соответствовать,
подчиняться
definition
to act in accordance or agreement; comply

synonyms
obey, adhere, fulfill, satisfy 

collocations
conform to [the norm, the status quo, society]
conform to [expectations, requirements, regulations]
conform to (certain) [social norms, conventions, rules]
conform to someone else’s [ideas, ideals]
overlapping 
перекрывающий(ся);
частично
совпадающий
definition
to have something in common or come together partly with

synonyms
coinciding, superimposed, projecting

collocations
overlapping ages/ counties/ sectors/ routes
superimpose 
накладывать,
впечатывать
definition
to put, place, or set over or on something else

synonyms
cover, overlay

collocations
superimpose conditions
superimpose one image on another superimpose a map on 
converge
сходиться
в одной точке, сосредоточиваться
definition
to tend to meet at a point; to develop toward a common result

synonyms
merge, assemble, concentrate, focalise, meet

collocations
converge schedules
converge to strong conclusions
envisage 
предусматривать,
предвидеть,
намечать
definition
to imagine happening; visualize; envision

synonyms
foresee, predict, anticipate, envision, forecast 

collocations
envisage [difficulties, issues, problems]
envisage [a scenario, the circumstances, a situation]
secure 
гарантировать,
укреплять,
обеспечивать
(безопасность)
definition
to make certain of; ensure; make safe; obtain

synonyms
gain, attain, acquire, assure, protect

collocations
secure the [victory, win]
secure the [position, niche, title]
VOCABULARY NOTES 7
clout
влияние,
авторитет,
мощь,
вес
definition
strong influence; having a superior or more favorable position

synonyms
leverage, might, power 

collocations
have considerable clout in the [committee, department, organization]
wield/ pull/ carry/ hold a lot of clout
profound 
глубокий,
основательный, фундаментальный
definition
of the greatest intensity; complete; relatively deep or strong; affecting one deeply

synonyms
deep, extensive, total, intense

collocations
a profound [sense, feeling, state] of
have a profound [impact, influence, effect] (on)
raise profound [questions, concerns] (about)
impact 
воздействие,
влияние
definition
influence, as the force carried by a new idea, etc.

synonyms
effect, influence, ramifications, result, consequence

collocations
a [positive, negative, adverse] impact
have a [big, huge, small, noticeable] impact
bolster
поддерживать,
укреплять
definition
support, or uphold

synonyms
reinforce, strengthen, underpin, boost

collocations
bolster confidence/ career/ theory
insulate
отделять,
обособлять,
изолировать
definition
to place in an isolated situation or condition; segregate; set apart

synonyms
separate, single out

collocations
insulate from the region’s political problems
insulate children from painful experiences
pivotal 
основной,
центральный, кардинальный
definition
of vital or critical importance

synonyms
crucial, central, principal, critical, essential 

collocations
a pivotal [point, moment] 
a pivotal [figure, influence] in
[played, had] a pivotal role (in)
pivotal to [success, the deal]
facilitate
содействовать, способствовать, облегчать,
продвигать
definition
make something easier or more likely to happen

synonyms
promote, simplify, assist

collocations
facilitate the [growth, development, trade, use] (of)
facilitate [access, communication, learning, understanding]
evolve
развивать, развертывать
definition
come forth gradually into being; develop

synonyms
develop, unfold, expand, elaborate

collocations
evolved [independently, separately]
continues to evolve
evolve at a rapid pace
stance 
позиция,
установка
definition
a mental or emotional position or opinion taken with respect to something

synonyms
attitude, position, opinion, viewpoint, standpoint, perspective

collocations
take a stance on the issue
[social, political, economic] stance 
take an aggressive stance towards/ against
take a proactive stance towards
reinforce
укреплять, усиливать, подкреплять
definition
to make more forceful or effective; strengthen; support

synonyms
strengthen, support, underpin, fortify

collocations
reinforce the [idea, notion, concept]
reinforce feelings/ opinion/ judgment
VOCABULARY NOTES 8
upcoming
наступающий,
предстоящий
definition
about to take place, appear, or be presented

synonyms
approaching, imminent, impending, forthcoming, scheduled, in prospect

collocations
an upcoming [event, game, movie, show]
upcoming this [week, month]
underlying 
основной, 
лежащий в основе,
подразумеваемый,
скрытый
definition
fundamental; basic; implicit

synonyms
basic, fundamental, intrinsic, primary 

collocations
the underlying [motive, motivation, cause, reasons, problem, condition] (of)
is the underlying rationale [behind, for, supporting]
according to the underlying [principle, assumption, theory]
the underlying [theme, message] of the [story, book, movie]
precursor 
предшественник,
предвестник
definition
a person or thing that comes before another, as in a method

synonyms
predecessor, forerunner

collocations
precursor to election campaign/ offending/ disease
intrusive 
навязчивый,
назойливый
definition
tending to be encroaching, invasive, trespassing 

synonyms
interfering, meddlesome, meddling, officious

collocations
intrusive cameras, scrutiny, journalists
foment
разжигать,
раздувать,
подстрекать
definition
to instigate or foster; promote the growth or development of

synonyms
incite, provoke, arouse, inflame, excite, encourage, stimulate

collocations
discord, rebellion, terror
framework 
рамки, 
основа, 
структура, 
каркас
definition
a structural plan or basis of a project

synonyms
structure, skeleton, frame, infrastructure, architecture

collocations
a [national, company, wide] framework
[an analytical, a political, a legal, a scientific] framework
a framework for the [project, job, class]
a framework to [support, guide, help, ensure]
sufficient 
достаточный
definition
adequate for the purpose; enough

synonyms
ample, plenty, adequate, satisfactory, due, decent 

collocations
sufficient [funds, cash, money, resources, credit, capital]
give sufficient [details, information, references]
impediment
препятствие, 
помеха, 
задержка
definition
obstruction; hindrance; obstacle

synonyms
hindrance, obstacle, obstruction, barrier, interference, inhibition

collocations
to work, to practice of war
conceive
постигать, 
понимать,
представлять себе, задумывать
definition
to form an idea, notion; envision; imagine; consider; to hold as an opinion

synonyms
understand, comprehend,  perceive

collocations
difficult to conceive [why]
conceived to [create, facilitate, improve, provide]
predicate
утверждать; заявлять, основывать
definition
to make an affirmation or assertion 

synonyms
affirm; assert; proclaim; declare

collocations
predicated upon my confidence, predicated on understanding, predicated the theory on
VOCABULARY NOTES 9
decay
ослабление,
упадок,
распад
definition
a gradual and continuing decline

synonyms
decline, deterioration, collapse, downfall

collocations
[mental, moral, physical, urban, radioactive] decay
the [country, nation, economy] is in decay
the [house, building] is in a state of decay
fall into decay
powerhouse
центр власти,
влияния
definition
a person, group, team, or the like, having great energy, strength, or potential for success

synonyms
man of action, a cooperative unit

collocations
powerhouse legal firm
technology/ media/ production  powerhouse
economic powerhouse
counterweight 
противовес
definition
a counterbalancing weight, influence, or force

synonyms
counterbalance, counterpoise, equaliser

collocations
a powerful regional counterweight to
a powerful regional counterweight to
system of weights and counterweights
a vital counterweight to Western power
a counterweight to skepticism
frustration 
разочарование, расстройство,
срыв, крушение
definition
a feeling of dissatisfaction, discontent

synonyms
disappointment, inconvenience

collocations
hope and frustration
through struggles and frustration 
a mix of frustration and anger 
substantive
значительный, существенный
definition
of a great or considerable amount or quantity; having practical importance, value, use, or effect

synonyms
essential, meaningful, considerable, significant

collocations
substantive record, substantive due process
to make a substantive judgement and recommendation
tensions
напряженные отношения; трения; конфликт
definition
a strained relationship between individuals, groups, nations

synonyms
strain, pressure, hostility, friction, antagonism

collocations
diplomatic efforts to ease tensions
escalate tensions 
increase tensions 
stalled 
застойный,
тупиковый
definition
stop being effective, working

synonyms
hampered, inhibited 

collocations
stalled infrastructure, economy
looming
надвигаться, принимать угрожающие размеры
definition
to assume form as an event about to happen

synonyms
imminent, in sight, impending, on the horizon

collocations
a looming [threat of, crisis in, war, deadline, confrontation] 
meddling 
вмешательство 
definition
the act of interfering with or altering something secretly or improperly

synonyms
tampering, intrusion, interruption, trespass, interference

collocations
meddling in personal life/ affairs
controversial
спорный, дискуссионный 
definition
subject to controversy; debatable

synonyms
questionable, contentious, arguable, dubious, provocative 

collocations
a controversial [book, article, politician]make a controversial [decision, ruling, law]the controversial [issue, question, matter] ofcontroversial [plans, programs, changes] (to)
VOCABULARY NOTES 10
reside 
находиться,
принадлежать
definition
to abide, lie, or be present habitually; exist or be inherent 

synonyms
lie, rest, be located, be found, be situated, be present, be vested, exist, belong 

collocations
reside in [London, the city, the country, that house]
reside [permanently, temporarily]
resides in the fact[power, talent, strength]
resides in him
distinct 
отдельный,
особый,
отчетливый,
определенный
definition
distinguished as not being the same; separate; dissimilar

synonyms
apparent, distinctive, distinguishing, typical, peculiar to 

collocations
are distinct from [each other, the others]
are [very, completely] distinct
distinct in [character, color, style, shape]
subject to
подвергаться,
зависеть от
definition
open or exposed to; being under the rule, control, or influence of something

synonyms
prone to, liable to, susceptible to, vulnerable to; dependent on, reliant on/ upon

collocations
have been subjected to [discrimination, racism]
subjected to [such, cruel, unnecessary] humiliation
subjected to [starvation, poor working conditions]
abundance
множество,
избыток 
definition
an extremely plentiful or over sufficient quantity or supply

synonyms
wealth, bunch, plentiful supply

collocations
of resources/ sites/ wealth
depletion 
истощение,
опустошение
definition
to decrease badly; use up the supply of

synonyms
exhaustion, reduction, drainage, consumption, shrinkage, wasting

collocations
the depletion of [supplies, provisions, resources, water, ammunition]
the depletion of [strength, power, resistance, energy]
the depletion of the [ozone layer, arctic ice]
depletion of [funds, capital, money, reserves]
impede
препятствовать,
мешать,
затруднять,
задерживать
definition
to cause to slow down in movement or progress

synonyms
hinder, hamper, block, prevent 

collocations
impede their [progress, efforts, access, success, work]
is impeding the [development, progress] of
susceptible 
восприимчивый, поддающийся, допускающий
definition
sensitive to, easily moved by, or easily touched by some influence, agency, force

synonyms
vulnerable, prone, inclined, liable, exposed 

collocations
susceptible to [damage, disease, infection, poisoning]
the [birds, patients, children] are susceptible to
[may, could, might] be susceptible (to)
allocate 
распределять,
назначать,
отчислить
definition
to set apart for a particular purpose; assign

synonyms
allot, designate, assign, appoint

collocations
time/ money/ budget
capacity
мощность,
способность,
возможность,
объем
definition
the maximum amount or number that can be contained;volume; ability to perform, yield, or withstand

synonyms
limit, size, volume, range; ability, aptitude, skill, talent

collocations
a maximum capacity of [40,000] [people, guests]
The capacity is [limited, restricted] to [40,000].
the capacity has been [extended, boosted, increased] tois
at full capacity
has the capacity to [provide, meet, produce, make]
[mental, emotional, cognitive] capacities
constrained
ограниченный, сдержанный
definition
forced, compelled, or obliged

synonyms
restricted, restrained, confined, stifled, inhibited

collocations
constrained to [work, be, admit, study, accept, pay]
constrained from [punching, speaking, hitting, approaching]
constrained by [the law, rules, regulations, rules and regulations]
constrained by [officers, her husband, friends]

GRAMMAR

TENSES

In a world that is tearing itself apart, the European Union should make trust in the European project a top strategic priority.

Despite a succession of severe convulsions, European integration has recently undergone a historic acceleration.

Since the COVID-19 pandemic hit Europe two and a half years ago, practically all of the EU’s decisions have sought to strengthen member states’ political integration.

In the 1930’s, Germany and Japan resorted to forcible regional integration, not economic nationalism, in response to economic crisis.

By contrast, in today’s crisis, the largest members of the European Union, the best model and greatest hope for benign regionalism, have turned their backs on integration.

Instead, the large states are now promoting informal groupings to look for worldwide solutions.

The clash of two visions of Europe is eroding the political stability of an area that once represented the best model and greatest hope for benign regionalism.

Suddenly, in the face of the economic crisis, these problems have become major sources of political instability.

The House vote came more than a year after the three countries’ leaders signed the USMCA in Buenos Aires in November 2018 – a longer wait than many had anticipated, but shorter than others had expected after the Republicans lost their House majority in last year’s midterm elections.

Officials and analysts in the three countries had been hopeful that Congress would approve the agreement.

PASSIVE VOICE

Moreover, the whole idea of Keynesian demand stimulus was developed, again in the 1930’s, in the context of self-contained national economies.

IF-SENTENCES

If the country meets the bloc’s entry requirements, there is no reason why it should not be admitted.

Promises of eventual membership and the long negotiations that precede it will harm the Union if they generate frustration among candidate countries’ governments and citizens.

Without the EU’s 2004 enlargement to Eastern Europe, the bloc would not be the commercial and regulatory power it is today.

The political issue was obvious: if Pelosi supported the USMCA (thereby showing that the Democrats could “do the people’s business”), she would give Trump a win at the same time that the House was impeaching him.

But if the pact is intended to boost Mexico’s economic growth and welfare, and bolster the rule of law, it will not achieve these goals any time soon.

But if she opposed the pact on the grounds that it failed to meet the demands of US labor organizations, she would expose the Democrats to Trump’s charge that they are interested only in overturning the result of the 2016 election.

But if the pact is intended to boost Mexico’s economic growth and welfare, and bolster the rule of law, it will not achieve these goals any time soon.

INDEFINITE FORMS

But today, the European Union is stymied by having squandered the chance to build stronger institutions when times were better and tempers less strained.

The EU is suffering from a number of problems that have been widely discussed for many years, but never seemed to be that urgent.

Globalization survived Brexit and Donald Trump, and it appeared to be thriving even after the COVID-19 pandemic.

So, the economic “mutual assured destruction” that was supposed to deter deglobalization has apparently reached its limits.

Most shortages proved to be short-lived

Given the potential costs of this shift, it is worth retracing how we got here.

Following the end of the Cold War, globalization brought about a drastic reduction in extreme poverty, not least by enabling East Asian countries, including China, to achieve rapid growth and development.

Now, countries are seeking to build resilience by turning inward, embracing industrial policies for sectors that are viewed as critical for national security, such as semiconductors and energy.

The country is central to the manufacture of a wide range of common consumer products, including mobile phones, computers, and household goods.

Countries attempting to stockpile supplies of vital goods would also run into cost constraints.

Fortunately, China seems to have brought the coronavirus under control, and economic activity in the country is returning to normal, so the disruption has been limited.

MODAL VERBS

The fiscal problem could be dealt with by issuing generally guaranteed European bonds, which might be a temporary measure, restricted to the financial emergency. From the perspective of Berlin or Paris, there should be no systematic Europeanization.

The new United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement may well succeed in marginally improving America’s position regarding jobs, investment, labor, the environment, and dispute settlement.

Building a new multilateralism won’t be easy; it may even appear impossible.

Such a disruption could come in the form of another public-health crisis or a natural disaster.

Climate concerns and carbon border taxes could compound the problem, by spurring cycles of retaliation and intensifying strain on international trade.

It may not be too difficult for very large economies to cover the costs of diversifying their production.

STRUCTURES

With many companies and industries dependent on faraway suppliers – and lacking any alternatives – no part of such value chains can function unless all parts do.

The more interconnected countries are, the easier it is for disease to spread among them.

But the more the crisis affects them, the more they think largely in national terms.

So, despite an unprecedented public-health shock, the global economy kept going

Many congressional Democrats demanded that the agreement be revised to allow US officials to conduct unannounced in situ inspections of plants and companies in Mexico.

ADJUNCTS

Moreover, by entrenching a volatile long-term rivalry, it would pose a grave threat to peace.

Likewise, reducing trade and foreign investment in the name of national security may actually increase political tensions and, by spurring a cycle of reprisals, place economies on a downward spiral.

Similarly, protocols and financing for rapid vaccine development and production capacity should be agreed (and continually updated).

Nevertheless, many Caribbean nations share similar economic characteristics and challenges.

Thus, several occurrences of natural disasters will result in the inefficient use of capital and would hinder long-term economic growth.

In addition, a major act of God will cause funds allocated to social services, such as healthcare and education, to be reduced and therefore decrease the country’s standard of living.

Added to that, there is always the possibility of a volcanic eruption or earthquake occurring without much warning.

In other words, both businesses and governments constantly need to be prepared for unexpected events that could result in the sudden loss of much needed infrastructure, valuable capital, and irreplaceable lives.

Additionally, many islands have established preferential trade agreements with Canada and members of the European Union.

RELATIVE CLAUSES

One of the most powerful drivers of support for deglobalization is the vulnerability of production models that rely on long and complex global supply chains, which have sacrificed robustness and resilience at the altar of short-term efficiency and cost reduction.

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